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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON D.C. 20549
 ____________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
____________________________________ 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______.
Commission file number 001-39221
____________________________________ 
OTIS WORLDWIDE CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________ 
Delaware 83-3789412
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Carrier Place, Farmington, Connecticut 06032
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(860) 233-6847
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
____________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common Stock ($0.01 par value)OTISNew York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ý.    No  ¨.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  .    No  ý.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý.    No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý.    No  ¨.
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated FilerýAccelerated Filer¨
Non-accelerated Filer¨Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  ý.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  .   No  ý.

The aggregate market value of the voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2020 was approximately $24,623,303,912 based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date. For purposes of this calculation, the Registrant has assumed that its directors and executive officers are affiliates.

At January 31, 2021, there were 433,671,005 shares of Common Stock outstanding.


DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Parts I, II and IV hereof incorporate by reference portions of the Otis Worldwide Corporation 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders. Part III hereof incorporates by reference portions of the Otis Worldwide Corporation Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders.
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OTIS WORLDWIDE CORPORATION
Index to Annual Report on Form 10-K for
Year Ended December 31, 2020
 
 Page
PART I

PART II
PART III
PART IV


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OTIS WORLDWIDE CORPORATION

Annual Report on Form 10-K for
Year Ended December 31, 2020

Whenever reference is made in this Form 10-K to specific sections of Otis Worldwide Corporation's 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders (2020 Annual Report), those sections are incorporated herein by reference and are included in Exhibit 13 to this Form 10-K. Otis Worldwide Corporation and its subsidiaries' names, abbreviations thereof, logos, and product and service designators are all either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of Otis Worldwide Corporation and its subsidiaries. Names, abbreviations of names, logos, and product and service designators of other companies are either the registered or unregistered trademarks or tradenames of their respective owners. As used herein, the terms "we", "us", "our", "the Company" or "Otis", unless the context otherwise requires, mean Otis Worldwide Corporation and its subsidiaries. References to internet websites in this Form 10-K are provided for convenience only. Information available through these websites is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.

PART I

Item 1. Business

Our Company

Otis is the world’s leading elevator and escalator manufacturing, installation and service company. We serve customers in over 200 countries and territories around the world. Otis has global scale and local focus, with over 1,400 branches and offices, and a direct physical presence in approximately 80 countries. The following description of our business should be read in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our 2020 Annual Report, including the information contained therein under the heading "Business Overview."

Otis is a Delaware corporation and was incorporated on March 1, 2019 in connection with the separation and distribution ("Separation") of each of Otis and Carrier Global Corporation ("Carrier") from United Technologies Corporation, subsequently renamed Raytheon Technologies Corporation ("UTC" or "RTX", as applicable) into separate independent publicly-traded companies. The Separation occurred on April 3, 2020. References to "UTC" relate to pre-Separation matters, and references to "RTX" relate to post-Separation matters.

The Separation was completed pursuant to a Separation and Distribution Agreement ("Separation Agreement") and other agreements with UTC related to the Separation, including but not limited to a transition services agreement ("TSA"), a tax matters agreement ("TMA"), an employee matter agreement ("EMA") and an intellectual property agreement (the "Intellectual Property Agreement"). For further discussion of these agreements, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and "Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule" in this Form 10-K and "Note 1: Business Overview and Separation from United Technologies Corporation" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, our net sales and our operating profit were approximately $12.8 billion and $1.6 billion, respectively. Our international operations represented approximately 73 percent of our net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020.

For discussions of the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on our business, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the heading "Business Overview" and "Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report.
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This Form 10-K and our quarterly reports on Form-10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports are available free of charge through the Investors section of our Internet website (http://www.otis.com) under the heading "SEC Filings" as soon as reasonably practicable after these reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) containing reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Description of Business by Segment

Our Company is organized into two segments, New Equipment and Service, which, for the year ended December 31, 2020, contributed 42 percent and 58 percent of our net sales, and 16 percent and 84 percent of our segment operating profit, respectively.

New Equipment

Through our New Equipment segment, we design, manufacture, sell and install a wide range of passenger and freight elevators, as well as escalators and moving walkways for residential, commercial and infrastructure projects. In 2020, our New Equipment segment had sales of $5.4 billion and operating profit of $318 million. In 2020, our New Equipment unit sales in China represented over half of our global New Equipment sales by unit volume.

We have developed a range of elevator and escalator solutions to meet the varying needs and objectives of our diverse customers. Our primary elevator and escalator solutions are described below.

Otis’ next-generation, digitally native Gen360 elevator, piloted in 2020, allows us to move from a predominantly mechanical system to an electronic architecture. Gen360 offers a compact design and footprint that frees up space in buildings combined with built-in Otis ONE connectivity providing proactive, predictive and transparent information to our technicians and customers. This technology combination helps to reduce entrapments, expands predictive and remote maintenance capabilities and leads to improved elevator up-time and service productivity. Otis also offers a range of passenger experience enhancements such as eView and Otis eCall. eView is an in-car display providing customized passenger content and communications. Otis eCall enables passengers within a building to call an elevator using an app on their mobile devices.

The Gen2 system is the basis for our principal low-and mid-rise elevator solution. The Gen2 system relies on compact elevator components that can fit within the elevator hoistway and can eliminate the need for a machine-room, which releases rentable or usable space. During 2020, we continued to expand this product offering, launching Gen2 Prime in India and other developing countries for the low-rise, entry-level segment. Since its inception in 2000, Otis has sold over one million Gen2 units.

We enhance the effectiveness of our elevator solutions by offering our proprietary Compass destination dispatch management system. Compass groups passengers by their desired destination and directs them to an assigned car that minimizes waiting and ride time. The system's algorithms anticipate traffic demand within a building and improves traffic flow.

In addition to elevator solutions, we also offer escalators and moving walkways. With a range of finishes and aesthetics, Otis escalators integrate easily with building designs. Our smart design and features enhance sustainability and passenger safety, such as sensor-equipped escalators and moving walkways that efficiently run only when passengers approach, or operate at reduced speeds to conserve energy when there are no riders.

Our New Equipment customers include real-estate and building developers and general contractors who develop and/or design buildings for residential, commercial, retail or mixed-use activity. We also sell New Equipment to government agencies to support infrastructure projects, such as airports, railways or metros. We generally sell directly to our customers through our New Equipment sales personnel. In China, due to the large and widespread nature of the customer base, our direct sales force is augmented by agents and distributors. We also rely on agents and distributors to sell our new equipment in certain countries and territories. Given the breadth of our customer base and the large number of customers to whom we deliver new equipment on an annual basis, we are not dependent on any single customer and do not have any material contracts with any single customer. Our network of agents and distributors is broad and geographically dispersed, and we do not rely on or have any material contracts with any single agent or distributor.

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New Equipment customers typically engage with us at an early stage during the construction cycle. The timing of order placement depends on factors including project complexity and customer requirements. Elevator installation usually occurs midway through building construction.

Most New Equipment orders are delivered within 12 months of booking, though larger projects can take longer to deliver based on customer construction schedules. Component lead-time is generally not a constraining factor. When placing New Equipment orders, customers typically make an advance payment to cover costs including design and contract engineering. These advance payments are typically followed by periodic progress payments at specified milestones, such as delivery of materials at the job site and completion of installation and equipment commissioning. Installation is carried out by our installation technicians or through subcontractors, in which case we typically complete the final inspection and commissioning to ensure that our quality standards are met. Revenues are recognized based on percentage of completion. Once commissioned, New Equipment units are typically supported by a warranty for a limited period of time.

Service

Through our Service segment, we perform maintenance and repair services, as well as modernization services to upgrade elevators and escalators. We have a maintenance portfolio of over 2 million units globally, which includes Otis equipment manufactured and sold by us, as well as equipment from other original equipment manufacturers. Through our network of service sales personnel, we sell our services directly to customers in all significant elevator and escalator end-segments around the world. In 2020, our Service segment had net sales of $7.4 billion and operating profit of $1.6 billion.

Service customers typically comprise building owners, facility managers, housing associations and government agencies that operate buildings where elevators and escalators are installed. Customers securing services for elevators are frequently different from those who initially make purchasing decisions with respect to New Equipment solutions. With over 2 million maintenance units under contract globally, we have a wide range of customers in our Service segment and do not have any single material service contract. Contract duration depends on a number of factors, including customer needs, regulatory requirements and industry/geography dynamics. We work closely with our customers to renew these contracts as appropriate. Certain types of customers, such as those owning or operating large properties or portfolios of properties, tend to execute long-term maintenance agreements.

We grow our maintenance portfolio through conversion of newly installed units into maintenance contracts, through prospecting and winning units already in service from customers using another service provider and through acquisitions. Our Service sales personnel seek to win service contracts upon the expiration or termination of existing service contracts from customers by offering a superior value proposition through service excellence, an engaged and technically sophisticated group of field service technicians, a streamlined customer experience and strong elevator and escalator operating performance.

Our services include inspections, preventive maintenance offerings and other customized maintenance offerings tailored to meet customer needs. A basic maintenance contract provides for inspection consistent with local regulatory needs. We also provide customers with repair services to address equipment and component wear and tear, as well as breakdowns. We offer incremental, tiered maintenance and service offerings, with varying levels of coverage up to and including comprehensive component replacement coverage.

Similar to most other electro-mechanical equipment, elevators and escalators are subject to wear and tear, which over time erodes equipment functionality. As elevator equipment ages, we work with customers to help renew or refresh their elevators with modernization solutions that enhance equipment operation and improve building functionality. Modernization offerings can range from relatively simple upgrades of interior finishes and aesthetics to complex upgrades of larger components and sub-systems.

We provide our Service offerings to our customers through a global network of approximately 33,000 Service mechanics operating out of over 1,400 branches and offices typically located in close proximity to concentrations of customers. Our mechanics are critical to our ability to deliver a high level of service to our customers. Our OTISLINE operations provide personalized customer support 24/7. They receive customer service requests and assign and dispatch field technicians, as necessary, to respond to service requests. Our network of service parts centers, repair centers, and obsolescence management capabilities are key enablers to supporting customers by keeping their elevators and escalators in good working condition.

We are a pioneer in connected elevator and escalator units. Since 1985, we have installed and supported remote elevator monitoring, where elevators and escalators are connected to OTISLINE through telecommunication links. We have deep
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experience in collecting, analyzing and implementing data from remotely monitored elevators, and developing insights to improve equipment operation. In 2020, we launched Otis ONE, an IoT solution providing active monitoring and cloud-based actionable analytics to our Otis experts, technicians and customers. Otis ONE provides real-time visibility of the entire portfolio, a range of health and diagnostic information and analytics to improve elevator up-time. This solution is proven to enhance customer satisfaction, improving retention, conversions and recaptures. By the end of 2020, we deployed and connected nearly 100,000 Otis ONE units, primarily in Europe. With the addition of the Otis ONE units, our total global portfolio of connected units is approximately 540,000 units as of December 31, 2020. In 2021, we will continue to innovate and expand our digital ecosystem and suite of digital solutions for both our existing service portfolio customers and for new equipment shipments from our factories.

Research and Development & Intellectual Property

Innovation is a fundamental characteristic of our history and is central to our strategy. For the year ended December 31, 2020, research and development ("R&D") expense was $152 million and 1.2% as a percentage of net sales. In addition to research and development expense, we made investments in digital and strategic initiatives of approximately $47 million, which in combination with research and development expense was 1.6% as a percentage of net sales for the year ended December 31, 2020.

We coordinate our R&D efforts globally through an operating model that sets global and local priorities based on customer and segment needs. We have several R&D centers and factories around the world, including major locations in China, India, France, Spain and the United States. The centers are strategically located close to concentrations of customers to enable efficient development of engineering solutions that can serve as global model products and adapt quickly and efficiently to local customer needs and local demographic and construction trends. We have approximately 1,300 engineers globally, with increasing focus on digital initiatives, software, design and user interface and the user experience.

We maintain a portfolio of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, licenses and franchises related to the Otis business to protect our R&D investments in products and services. We currently own approximately 3,000 globally issued patents, and we have approximately 3,100 patent applications pending globally, of which 2,500 applications were filed in the last three years. Our patents are primarily filed in Europe, the United States and Asia. We believe that our patents and trade secrets create a competitive advantage and that we have taken reasonable measures to build a portfolio of valid and enforceable intellectual property rights. However, these intellectual property rights might be challenged and could be found invalid or unenforceable. Loss of strategic patents and trade secrets could significantly affect our competitiveness. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K for further discussion of intellectual property matters.

Joint Ventures and Non-Wholly Owned Subsidiaries

Our international strategic relationships, joint ventures and non-wholly owned subsidiaries are an important part of our business as they support our access to international markets and customers. Results of these entities are consolidated with our financial and operational results. In addition to China and Spain as discussed below, we also operate joint ventures in other countries, including Russia, Kuwait, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

China

We operate in China through two principal joint ventures: Otis Elevator (China) Investment Company Limited (“Otis China”) and Otis Electric Elevator Company Limited (“Otis Electric”). Otis China is a joint venture established in 1998 for the purpose of manufacturing, installing and servicing elevators, escalators and related equipment in China. We are a majority owner of Otis China, and Tianjin Tai Kang Investment Co. Ltd. (“Tianjin Tai Kang”) is our joint venture partner. Otis Electric, a subsidiary of Otis China, is a joint venture established in 1997 for the purpose of manufacturing, installing and servicing elevators, escalators and related equipment both in and outside China. Otis China owns a controlling equity stake in Otis Electric. Otis China’s partner in Otis Electric is Xizi Elevator Group Co.

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Spain

We conduct our operations in Spain through Zardoya Otis S.A. (“Zardoya Otis”), which manufactures, installs and services elevators and elevator equipment in Spain, and exports elevator equipment it manufactures for installation by certain of our subsidiaries outside of Spain. Zardoya Otis’ shares are listed on the Madrid stock exchange, and the company is subject to the regulations of the Spanish Stock Exchange Market National Commission. We own a majority equity stake in Zardoya Otis, with Euro Syns S.A. owning a minority position and the remaining shares being held by public shareholders.

Competition

We operate in a global and highly competitive industry. Due to the global and localized nature of the industry, there are numerous participants of varying size that operate in our industry. According to industry estimates, there are several hundred participants that offer New Equipment solutions and several thousand participants that offer maintenance and service solutions. In both the New Equipment and Service segments, major competitors globally include KONE Oyj, Schindler Group and TK Elevator, while there are a number of additional competitors in the Asia Pacific region. Competitive dynamics vary significantly by segment and geography. In the Service segment, independent service providers and other small operators are significant competitors in most of our local geographies. We estimate small and independent service providers globally have an aggregate portfolio of about 50 percent of service units, but these small and independent service providers account for a smaller percentage of the service business when measured by value because of the types of units and level of maintenance covered by these providers.

There are several factors that determine competitiveness in the industry, including local codes and compliance requirements, customer preferences, price, reputation, delivery and execution, product quality, equipment performance, reliability and long-term service and product support. Our success in both our New Equipment and Service segments depends upon our ability to develop and market our products, services and solutions, as well as our ability to provide the people, technologies, facilities, equipment and financial capacity needed to deliver those products and services with maximum efficiency. We believe our global presence, local relationships and proven track record in executing complex elevator and escalator solutions contribute to our iconic brand, reputation and competitive position in the industry. We believe our business strategies sustain New Equipment growth, accelerate Service portfolio growth, advance the digitalization of Otis, and focus and empower the organization, will support our ability to successfully compete across the New Equipment and Service segments, and will help deliver sustainable earnings growth.

Compliance with Government Regulations

We conduct our business through subsidiaries and affiliates worldwide. Any changes in legislation or government policies impacting our industry, including with respect to employee safety, labor-related regulations, industrial equipment, licensing requirements, foreign ownership limitations and building and elevator safety codes, can affect our worldwide operations. We closely monitor local legislation and government policies in the locations in which we operate as they set the maintenance requirements for our customers.

In addition, our operations are subject to and affected by environmental regulations promulgated by federal, state and local authorities in the United States and regulatory authorities with jurisdiction over our foreign operations. We have incurred and will likely continue to incur liabilities under various government statutes and regulations for the cleanup of pollutants previously released into the environment. We do not anticipate that compliance with current provisions relating to the protection of the environment or that any payments we may be required to make for cleanup liabilities will have a material adverse effect upon our competitive position, cash flows, results of operations or financial condition.

U.S. laws, regulations, orders, and other measures concerning the export or re-export of products, software, services and technology to, and other trade-related activities involving, non-U.S. countries and parties affect the operations of Otis and its affiliates, as do those of other countries pertaining to similar matters.

For further discussion of risks related to environmental matters and other government regulations, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” "Note 2: Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" and "Note 21: Contingent Liabilities" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report.

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Seasonality

Our business and operating results are generally not subject to significant fluctuations as a result of seasonality, although we have experienced lower New Equipment sales in Asia in the first calendar quarter, coinciding with Lunar New Year celebrations. In addition, we have also experienced lower New Equipment sales in the fourth quarter in China, due to a national holiday that occurs during the first week of October which may impact the relative mix of sales within the quarter.

Raw Materials and Supplies

Due to the global and distributed nature of our operations, we partner with a diverse network of several thousand suppliers globally. These include product and non-product suppliers, as well as subcontractors. We rely on approximately 500 key suppliers for our manufacturing supply chain.

Components and systems necessary to effectively complete our New Equipment projects, as well as to satisfy our maintenance and repair obligations, are often available from two or more sources within the industry. While we believe no single supplier is material to our business, some components or applications require particular specifications or qualifications. In those cases, there may be a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers that can readily provide such components, which could result in supply constraints or cost pressures due to an issue with such a supplier, including financial or operational difficulties or a contract dispute. We utilize a number of techniques to address potential disruption in and other risks relating to our supply chain, including the use of safety stock, alternative materials and qualification of multiple supply sources.

Although at times high prices for some raw materials important to our business have caused margin and cost pressures, we do not foresee near-term unavailability of materials, components or supplies that would have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, cash flows, results of operations or financial condition.

See "Item 1A. Risk Factors” section in this Form 10-K, for further discussion on the possible effects of the cost and availability of raw materials and risks associated with our supply chain.

Human Capital

As of December 31, 2020, our global workforce consists of approximately 69,000 employees divided as follows: 41% in Asia, 37% in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (“EMEA”) and 22% in the Americas.

Approximately 64% of our employees in the U.S. are covered by collective bargaining agreements. Outside of the U.S., our employees are represented by workers' councils or statutory labor unions as may be customary or required in those jurisdictions. While we strive to maintain good relationships with our employee representative bodies, our business may be adversely affected by work stoppages, union negotiations, labor disputes and other matters associated with our labor force. The collective bargaining agreement for most of our bargaining unit employees in the U.S. was renewed without disruption in July 2017 and is set to expire in July 2022. Although some previous contract renegotiations have had a significant impact on our financial condition or results of operations, we do not anticipate that the renegotiation of this contract in 2021-2022 will have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, cash flows, financial condition or results of operations. For a discussion of the effects of our restructuring actions on employment, see “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and "Note 16: Restructuring Costs" to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in 2020 Annual Report.

Safety and Health

Safety is one of the Otis Absolutes. For that reason, safety measures and indicators are regularly monitored by management and reported to our Board of Directors. To promote safety, we have a health and safety management system and regularly measure the effectiveness of our health and safety programs. We empower all of our employees and subcontractors with stop work authority if they perceive an unsafe condition or a behavior that may cause injury. We also seek to promote a culture where stop work authority can be freely exercised without the fear of retribution or retaliation, and a learning culture to enhance the quality and delivery of safety and technical training.

For employees to be effective, they need to be healthy. In 2020, with the added stress of the COVID-19 pandemic, we increased our efforts to improve our employees’ mental health by expanding employee assistance plan benefits and by bringing increased attention to the importance of mental health. We also covered the cost of COVID-19 testing and treatment for our
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U.S. based employees and covered family members under our welfare plans and amended our 401(k) savings plan to enhance loan eligibility and repayment terms and to permit certain distributions. In response to the threats of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have, where possible, also offered remote work flexibility.

Training and Development

We strive to emphasize employee development and training, as we believe that individual and corporate success is driven by lifelong learning and by empowering employees. As a result, we provide a range of development and mentoring opportunities that vary based on an employee’s career stage and function. One of our flagship programs is “Otis University,” a global program that builds leadership and functional capabilities in sales, field, engineering, operations, and major projects. We are very proud of our “Employee Scholar Program,” which is a comprehensive, company-sponsored education program that allows employees to expand their skills through degree or certification programs. Since the program's inception in 1997, Otis, as a business unit of UTC and following the Separation, has supported Otis colleagues in receiving more than 5,000 degrees across 60 countries through an investment of over $90 million in the Employee Scholar Program.

Ensuring that we have access to trained technicians is very important to our business. Our mechanics receive extensive training to service and install equipment safely. This training, which is provided by Otis and our unions, consists of live, virtual, and on-the-job modules with experienced mechanics. To help us attract talent and provide us with a pipeline of trained mechanics in China, we have partnered with five technology schools in the country to offer the Otis Technology Academy. The students in the technology schools are provided with technical training, certifications, hands-on access to our equipment and an Otis apprenticeship period. We are also increasing the number of females in our mechanic population across the world in order to enhance diversity and to obtain access to a larger talent pool.

Commitment to Change

As a newly independent company, we aim to be an equal-opportunity employer of choice for people of broad perspectives and experiences, cultures, genders, races, and generations. We want to be a business whose workforce mirrors the diversity of our customers and the communities where we live and work and a place where every voice feels safe, welcomed and heard. To help us achieve these objectives, we made the following commitments:

Conduct an independent review of our Company to uncover and eliminate biases affecting any colleagues in our hiring, compensation, professional development and other business practices;

Accelerate anti-racism, unconscious bias and inclusion learning for colleagues at all levels of the organization and throughout their Otis careers;

Create an advisory group, Perspectives on Inclusion, to ensure transparency and to hold us accountable for achieving measurable progress towards a diverse, inclusive culture;

Amplify our ongoing commitment to STEM and vocational education, as we join with community and business partners to invest in and build a diverse talent pipeline;

Make social justice and racial equality an integral part of our community giving, volunteerism and external reporting programs;

Promote and expand mental health and well-being benefits, policies and practices to support our colleagues.

In addition, we believe that it is important for us to significantly increase the number of women we have in executive roles. In 2020, we joined the Paradigm for Parity coalition, pledging our commitment to establish gender parity across our leadership by 2030.

Engagement

We believe that engaged employees deliver better service to our customers. We measure engagement by conducting employee surveys two to three times a year. The results, which are reported to our Board of Directors and management, help us assess how our employees feel about working for us. We use the survey results to develop action plans to address areas of concern. The engagement surveys, which are confidential, cover topics such as safety, ethics, belonging, quality, company prospects, inclusion, empowerment, accountability and managerial effectiveness.
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Cautionary Note Concerning Factors That May Affect Future Results

This Form 10-K contains statements which, to the extent they are not statements of historical or present fact, constitute “forward-looking statements” under the securities laws. From time to time, oral or written forward-looking statements may also be included in other information released to the public. These forward-looking statements are intended to provide management’s current expectations or plans for Otis’ future operating and financial performance, based on assumptions currently believed to be valid. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as “believe,” “expect,” “expectations,” “plans,” “strategy,” “prospects,” “estimate,” “project,” “target,” “anticipate,” “will,” “should,” “see,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “confident” and other words of similar meaning in connection with a discussion of future operating or financial performance or the Separation. Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements relating to future sales, earnings, cash flow, results of operations, uses of cash, dividends, share repurchases, tax rates and other measures of financial performance or potential future plans, strategies or transactions of Otis following the Separation, including the estimated costs associated with the Separation and other statements that are not historical facts. All forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. For those statements, Otis claims the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors include, without limitation:

the effect of economic conditions in the industries and markets in which Otis and its businesses operate in the U.S. and globally and any changes therein, including financial market conditions, fluctuations in commodity prices, interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates, levels of end market demand in construction, the impact of weather conditions, pandemic health issues (including COVID-19 and its effects, among other things, on global supply, demand, and distribution disruptions as the coronavirus outbreak continues and results in an increasingly prolonged period of travel, commercial and/or other similar restrictions and limitations), natural disasters and the financial condition of Otis’ customers and suppliers;
challenges in the development, production, delivery, support, performance and realization of the anticipated benefits of advanced technologies and new products and services;
future levels of indebtedness, capital spending and research and development spending;
future availability of credit and factors that may affect such availability, including credit market conditions and Otis’ capital structure;
the timing and scope of future repurchases of Otis’ common stock ("Common Stock"), which, if commenced, may be suspended at any time due to various factors, including market conditions and the level of other investing activities and uses of cash;
delays and disruption in delivery of materials and services from suppliers;
cost reduction or containment actions, restructuring costs and related savings and other consequences thereof;
new business and investment opportunities;
the anticipated benefits of moving away from diversification and balance of operations across product lines, regions and industries;
the outcome of legal proceedings, investigations and other contingencies;
pension plan assumptions and future contributions;
the impact of the negotiation of collective bargaining agreements and labor disputes;
the effect of changes in political conditions in the U.S., including the new U.S. Administration, and other countries in which Otis and its businesses operate, including the United Kingdom’s recent withdrawal from the European Union, on general market conditions, global trade policies and currency exchange rates in the near term and beyond;
the effect of changes in tax, environmental, regulatory (including among other things import/export) and other laws and regulations in the U.S. and other countries in which Otis and its businesses operate, including changes as a result of the new U.S. Administration;
the ability of Otis to retain and hire key personnel;
the scope, nature, impact or timing of acquisition and divestiture activity, including among other things integration of acquired businesses into existing businesses and realization of synergies and opportunities for growth and innovation and incurrence of related costs;
the expected benefits of the Separation and the timing thereof;
a determination by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities that the distribution or certain related transactions should be treated as taxable transactions;
risks associated with indebtedness incurred as a result of financing transactions undertaken in connection with the Separation;
the risk that dis-synergy costs, costs of restructuring transactions and other costs incurred in connection with the Separation will exceed Otis’ estimates; and
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the impact of the Separation on Otis’ businesses, resources, systems, procedures and controls, diversion of management’s attention and the impact on relationships with customers, suppliers, employees and other business counterparties.

In addition, this Form 10-K includes important information as to risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. See the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" under the headings "Note 1: Business Overview and Separation from United Technologies Corporation" and "Note 21: Contingent Liabilities", the section titled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" under the headings "Business Overview", "Critical Accounting Estimates" "Results of Operations" and "Liquidity and Financial Condition" in our 2020 Annual Report and the sections titled "Item 1. Business", "Item 1A. Risk Factors" and "Item 3. Legal Proceedings" in this Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report, or in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law. Additional information as to factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements is disclosed from time to time in our other filings with the SEC.


Item 1A. Risk Factors

Our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows can be impacted by the factors set forth below, any one of which could cause our actual results to vary materially from recent results or from our anticipated future results.

Risks Related to our Business

We may be affected by global economic, capital market and political conditions in general, and conditions in the construction and infrastructure industries in particular.

Our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows may be adversely affected by changes in global economic conditions and geopolitical risks, including global credit market conditions, levels of consumer and business confidence, commodity prices, raw material and energy costs, foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates, labor costs, levels of government spending and deficits, trade policies, tariffs and trade barriers, political conditions, regulatory changes, fluctuations in residential and commercial construction activity, pandemic health issues (see discussion of COVID-19 below), natural disasters, actual or anticipated default on sovereign debt, changes as a result of the new U.S. Administration and other challenges that could affect the global economy. These economic and political conditions affect businesses such as ours in a number of ways. In particular, a slowdown in building and remodeling activity or decreased public spending on infrastructure projects could adversely affect our financial performance.

Our business may be further impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

During 2020, COVID-19 spread throughout the world, resulting in widespread travel restrictions and extended shutdowns, occupancy limits or other restrictions of non-essential businesses, including construction and hospitality venues, impacting to various extents our factory operations, new equipment installations and access to units under maintenance. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is uncertain at this time and will depend on future developments, including the availability, efficacy and distribution of various vaccines, but further prolonged closures or restrictions throughout the world or the further rollback of reopening measures due to the resurgence of COVID-19 cases and continued decreases in the general level of economic activity may further disrupt our operations and the operations of our suppliers, distributors and customers. Additionally, further tightening of credit in the capital markets could adversely affect our ability to access the capital markets or could result in a significant increase in our borrowing costs. COVID-19 has adversely affected and could further affect the ability of our customers to pay for our products and services and to obtain financing for significant purchases and operations, which has resulted in, and could further result in, a decrease and/or cancellation of orders for our products and services and/or payment delays or defaults. Similarly, COVID-19 has adversely affected and may further affect our supply base and increase the potential for one or more of our suppliers to experience financial distress or bankruptcy, which could impact our ability to fulfill orders on time or at anticipated cost. Additionally, it is unclear what longer term effects the virus will have on the global economy, including the commercial building industry. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Our international operations subject us to risk as our results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in local and regional economic conditions, such as fluctuations in exchange rates, risks associated with government policies on international trade and investments, and risks associated with China and other emerging markets.

We conduct our business on a global basis, with approximately 73 percent of our 2020 net sales derived from international operations. Changes in local and regional economic conditions, including fluctuations in exchange rates, may affect product demand and reported profits in our non-U.S. operations, where transactions are generally denominated in local currencies. In addition, currency fluctuations may affect the prices we pay for the materials used in our products. Though we engage in hedging strategies to manage foreign currency exposures in connection with certain cross-border transactions, our operating margins may be negatively impacted by currency fluctuations that result in higher costs or lower revenues for certain cross-border transactions. Our financial statements are denominated in U.S. Dollars. Accordingly, fluctuations in exchange rates may also give rise to gains or losses when financial statements of non-U.S. operating units are translated into U.S. Dollars. Given that the majority of our sales are non-U.S. based, a strengthening of the U.S. Dollar against other major foreign currencies could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our international sales and operations are subject to risks associated with changes in local government laws, regulations and policies, including those related to investments and limitations on foreign ownership of businesses, taxation, foreign exchange controls, capital controls, employment regulations and the repatriation of earnings. Government policies on international trade and investments such as import quotas, capital controls, punitive taxes or tariffs or similar trade barriers, whether imposed by individual governments or regional trade blocs, can affect demand for our products and services, impact the competitive position of our products or services, or encumber our ability to manufacture or sell products in certain countries. The implementation of more restrictive trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs, or the renegotiation of existing trade agreements with the U.S. or countries where we sell large quantities of products and services, procure materials incorporated into our products, manufacture products or recruit and employ employees, including the new U.S. Administration, trade relations between the U.S. and China (as discussed below) and the U.K.’s recent withdrawal from the EU, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including our ability to recruit and retain employees or deploy certain employees to the geographies where their skills are best utilized. Our international sales and operations are also sensitive to changes in foreign nations’ priorities, including government budgets, as well as to political and economic instability. International transactions may involve increased financial and legal risks due to differing legal systems and customs in foreign countries.

China is currently the largest end market for sales of new equipment in our industry, and sales in China represent over half of our global New Equipment net sales by unit volume. Changes to market and economic conditions in China, or an escalation of trade conflicts between the U.S. and China, may impact our ability to continue New Equipment net sales in China at rates consistent with prior years. Furthermore, as is the case in many countries where we operate, the legal and regulatory regime in China is evolving, and accordingly, we could, in the future, be required to comply with significant requirements unique to China in order to maintain access to Chinese markets.

We expect that sales to emerging markets will continue to account for a significant portion of our sales as those and other developing nations and regions around the world increase their demand for our products and services. A slowdown in urbanization in emerging countries, such as China or India, could adversely affect our financial performance. In addition, as part of our global business model, we operate in certain countries, including Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine, Turkey and countries in the Middle East, that carry high levels of currency, political, compliance and economic risk. Our emerging market operations can present many risks, including cultural differences (such as employment and business practices), compliance risks, economic and government instability, currency fluctuations, and the imposition of foreign exchange and capital controls. While these factors and their impact are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

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We use a variety of raw materials, supplier-provided parts, components, sub-systems and third-party manufacturing services in our business, and significant shortages, supplier capacity constraints, supplier production disruptions or price increases could increase our operating costs and adversely impact the competitive positions of our products.

Our reliance on suppliers (including third-party manufacturers) and commodity markets to secure the raw materials and components used in our products exposes us to volatility in the prices and availability of these materials. Issues with suppliers (such as a disruption in deliveries, capacity constraints, production disruptions, quality issues and supplier closings or bankruptcies), price increases or decreased availability of raw materials or commodities could have a material adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers, could damage our reputation or could increase our operating costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Adverse changes in our relationships with, or the financial condition, performance or purchasing patterns of, key distributors and agents could adversely affect us.

Certain of our businesses sell a significant amount of their products to key distributors and agents, particularly in China, that have valuable relationships with customers. Some of these distributors and agents also sell our competitors’ products, and if they favor competing products for any reason they may fail to market our products effectively. Adverse changes in our relationships with these distributors and other partners, or adverse developments in their financial condition, performance or purchasing patterns, or compliance practices, could adversely affect our reputation, competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

We design, manufacture, install and service products that incorporate advanced technologies; the introduction of new products and technologies involves risks, and we may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated.

We seek to grow our business through the design, development, production, sale and support of innovative products that incorporate advanced technologies. The product and service needs of our customers change and evolve regularly, and we invest substantial amounts in research and development efforts to pursue advancements in technologies, products and services. Our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our technological advancements, such as the development and execution of advanced digital technologies for the benefit of our New Equipment or Service segment or the development of new products depend on a variety of factors, including meeting development, production, certification and regulatory approval schedules; execution of internal and external performance plans; availability of supplier and internally produced parts and materials; performance of suppliers and subcontractors; hiring and training of qualified personnel; achieving cost and production efficiencies; validation of innovative technologies; and customer interest in new technologies and products and acceptance of products we manufacture or that incorporate technologies we develop.

Our research and development efforts may not result in innovative products or services that incorporate new technologies for our New Equipment and Service segments, or products or services being developed on a timely basis or that meet the needs of our customers as effectively as competitive offerings. In addition, the markets for our products or services, or products that incorporate our technologies, may not develop or grow as we anticipate. We or our customers, suppliers or subcontractors may encounter difficulties in developing and producing new products and services, and may not realize the degree or timing of benefits initially anticipated or may otherwise suffer significant adverse financial consequences. Due to the design complexity of our products, we may experience delays in completing the development and introduction of new products. Any delays could result in increased development costs or divert resources from other projects. If we are unable to successfully develop and timely introduce new products, services and technologies, our competitors may develop competing technologies that gain market acceptance in advance of or instead of our products or services. The possibility also exists that our competitors might develop new technology or offerings that might cause our existing technology and offerings to become obsolete, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

We operate in a competitive environment and our profitability depends on our ability to accurately estimate the costs and timing of providing our products and services.

Our contracts are typically awarded on a competitive basis. Our quotations and bids are based upon, among other items, the cost to provide the products and services. To generate an acceptable return on our investment in these contracts, we must be able to accurately estimate our costs to provide the services and deliver the products required by the contract and to be able to complete the contracts in a timely manner. If we fail to accurately estimate our costs or the time required to complete a new equipment order, or the extent of required maintenance pursuant to a service contract, the profitability of our contracts may be materially and adversely affected. Some of our contracts provide for liquidated damages if we do not perform in accordance
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with the contract. As a result of these and other factors, we may not be able to provide products and services at competitive prices while maintaining anticipated levels of profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Our debt levels and related debt service obligations could have negative consequences; we may need additional debt or equity financing in the future to meet our capital needs, and such financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all, due to changes in global capital markets, our financial performance or outlook or our credit ratings and may be dilutive to existing shareholders.

As of December 31, 2020, we had $5.3 billion outstanding long-term debt on a consolidated basis and approximately $701 million of short-term debt. Our debt level and related debt service obligations could have negative consequences, including, among others:
requiring us to dedicate significant cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our debt, which would reduce funds we have available for other purposes, such as acquisitions and reinvestment in our businesses;
reducing our flexibility in planning for or reacting to changes in our business and market conditions; and
exposing us to interest rate risk because a portion of our debt obligations are at variable rates.

We may need additional financing for general corporate purposes. For example, we may need funds to increase our investment in research and development activities, to refinance or repay existing debt, or to make a strategic acquisition. We may be unable to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. Volatility in the world financial markets, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could increase borrowing costs or affect our ability to access the capital markets. Our ability to issue debt or enter into other financing arrangements on acceptable terms could be adversely affected if there is a material decline in the demand for our products or services, or in the solvency of our customers, suppliers or distributors or other significantly unfavorable changes in economic conditions.

Otis has been issued an investment grade credit rating from each of Moody’s Investor Services, Inc. and Standard & Poor’s. There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our credit ratings, and any actual or anticipated changes or downgrades in our credit ratings, including any announcement that our ratings are under review for a downgrade or similar announcement, could increase the cost of borrowing under any indebtedness we may incur, reduce market capacity for our commercial paper, require the posting of additional collateral under our derivative contracts, or otherwise have a negative impact on our liquidity, capital position and access to the capital markets.

If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity securities, our shareholders will experience dilution of their ownership interest. And if we raise additional funds by issuing debt, we may be subject to limitations on our operations due to restrictive covenants.

Quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases, if commenced, may be discontinued, accelerated or modified, are subject to a number of uncertainties and may affect the price of Common Stock.

Quarterly cash dividends are a component of our capital allocation strategy, which we fund with operating free cash flow, borrowings and divestitures. We also have authority to repurchase our shares under a share repurchase program, which we have not exercised as of December 31, 2020. In general, dividends and share repurchases, if commenced, may be discontinued, accelerated, suspended or delayed at any time without prior notice. Furthermore, the amount of such dividends and repurchases may be changed, and the amount, timing and frequency of such dividends and repurchases may vary from historical practice or from the company’s stated expectations. Decisions with respect to dividends and share repurchases are subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be based on a variety of factors. Important factors that could cause us to discontinue, limit, suspend, increase or delay our quarterly cash dividends or share repurchases include market conditions, the price of Common Stock, the nature and timing of other investment opportunities, changes in our business strategy, the terms of our financing arrangements, our outlook as to the ability to obtain financing at attractive rates, the impact on our credit ratings and the availability of domestic cash. The reduction or elimination of our cash dividend or share repurchase program could adversely affect the market price of Common Stock. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term shareholder value, short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program's effectiveness.

See "Item 5. Market for Registrants Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities" in this Form 10-K for more information regarding our share repurchase program.
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We engage in acquisitions and divestitures, and may encounter difficulties integrating acquired businesses with, or disposing of businesses from, our current operations; therefore, we may not realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions and divestitures.

We seek to grow through strategic acquisitions in addition to internal growth. Our due diligence reviews in connection with our acquisitions may not identify all of the material issues necessary to accurately estimate the cost and potential loss contingencies of a particular transaction, including potential exposure to regulatory sanctions resulting from an acquisition target’s previous activities. For example, we may incur unanticipated costs, expenses or other liabilities as a result of an acquisition target’s violation of applicable laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), antitrust, anti-collusion or other anti-corruption laws in non-U.S. jurisdictions. We also may incur unanticipated costs or expenses, including post-closing asset impairment charges, as well as expenses associated with eliminating duplicate facilities, litigation and other liabilities. We may incur unexpected costs associated with labor law, tax or pension matters or to bring acquired assets up to our operating standards. We may encounter difficulties in integrating acquired businesses with our operations, applying our internal controls to these acquired businesses or in managing strategic investments. Additionally, we may not realize the degree or timing of benefits we anticipate when we first enter into a transaction. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, accounting requirements relating to business combinations, including the requirement to expense certain acquisition costs as incurred, may cause us to incur greater earnings volatility and generally lower earnings during periods in which we acquire new businesses.

We also make strategic divestitures from time to time. Our divestitures may result in continued financial exposure to the divested businesses, such as through guarantees, other financial arrangements, continued supply and services arrangements, and environmental and product liability claims, following the transaction. Under these arrangements, nonperformance by those divested businesses could result in obligations being imposed on us that could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, cash flows, results of operations or financial condition.

For constraints on mergers and acquisition activity after the completion of the distribution, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Separation” below.

We are party to joint ventures and other strategic alliances, which may not be successful and may expose us to special risks and restrictions.

Our business operations depend on various strategic alliances and joint ventures. In certain regions, we operate our business through joint venture relationships or non-wholly owned subsidiaries, including: Otis Electric Elevator Company Limited and Otis Elevator (China) Investment Limited in China; and Zardoya Otis, a publicly traded company whose shares are listed on the Madrid Stock Exchange, in Spain. A significant downturn or deterioration in the business or financial condition of a joint venture partner could affect our results of operations in a particular period. Our joint ventures may experience labor strikes, diminished liquidity or credit unavailability, weak demand for products, delays in the launch of new products or other difficulties in their businesses. Changes in local government laws, regulations and policies, including those related to investments and limitations on foreign ownership of businesses, could adversely impact our ability to participate in and operate our joint ventures, or could result in changes to the ownership structure or allocation of rights in our joint ventures. If we are not successful in maintaining our joint ventures and other strategic partnerships, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.

Joint ventures, strategic alliances and non-wholly owned subsidiaries inherently involve special risks. Whether or not we hold a majority interest or maintain operational control in such arrangements, our partners or other shareholders may (1) have economic or business interests or goals that are inconsistent with or contrary to ours, (2) exercise veto or other rights, to the extent available, to block actions that we believe to be in our or the joint venture’s, strategic alliance’s or non-wholly owned subsidiary’s best interests, (3) take action contrary to our policies or objectives with respect to our investments or business or (4) be unable or unwilling (including as a result of financial or other difficulties) to fulfill their obligations, such as contributing capital to expansion or maintenance projects, under the joint venture, strategic alliance or other agreement. There can be no assurance that any particular joint venture or strategic alliance will be beneficial to us.

We are subject to litigation, product safety and other legal and compliance risks.

We are subject to a variety of litigation, legal and compliance risks. These risks relate to, among other things, product safety, personal injuries, intellectual property rights, contract-related claims, taxes, environmental matters, competition laws and laws governing improper business practices. We could be charged with wrongdoing in connection with such matters. If
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convicted or found liable, we could be subject to significant fines, penalties, repayments and other damages (in certain cases, treble damages).

As a global business, we are subject to complex laws and regulations in the U.S. and other countries in which we operate. Those laws and regulations may be interpreted in different ways. They may also change from time to time, as may related interpretations and other guidance. Changes in laws or regulations could result in higher expenses or changes to business operations that could impact our ability to sell our products and services or sell them at expected profit levels. Uncertainty relating to those laws or regulations may also affect how we operate, structure our investments and enforce our rights.

Product and general liability claims (including claims related to the safety, reliability or maintenance of our products) and accident risks during the production, installation, maintenance and use of our products can result in significant costs, including settlements, punitive damages and other risks such as damage to our reputation, negative publicity and management distraction, which could reduce demand for our products and services.

In addition, the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA applies to companies, individual directors, officers, employees and agents. Under certain anti-corruption laws, companies also may be held liable for the actions of partners or representatives. Certain of our customer relationships are with governmental entities and are, therefore, subject to the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws. Despite meaningful measures that we undertake to seek to ensure lawful conduct, which include training and internal controls, we may not always be able to prevent our employees, partners, joint ventures, agents or distributors from violating the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws. As a result, we could be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement, changes or enhancements to our compliance measures that could increase our costs, decrease our access to certain sales channels, personnel changes or other remedial actions. Prior to the Separation, UTC, including Otis, was subject to a formal investigation by the SEC related to alleged violations of anti-corruption laws, which resulted in a Settlement Order in which our former parent UTC paid a civil penalty related to certain activities in our business in Russia, China and Kuwait, as well as activities in another UTC business.

Moreover, we are subject to antitrust and anti-collusion laws, including mandatory supply laws and bidding regulations, in various jurisdictions throughout the world. Changes in these laws or their interpretation, administration and/or enforcement may occur over time, and any such changes may limit our future acquisitions or operations, or result in changes to our strategies, sales and distribution structures or other business practices. We are subject to ongoing claims related to alleged violations of anti-collusion laws in certain European countries, where we are subject to claims for overcharges on elevators and escalators related to civil cartel cases. Though we have implemented policies, controls and other measures to prevent collusion or anti-competitive behavior, our controls may not always be effective in preventing our employees, partners, joint ventures, agents or distributors from violating antitrust or anti-collusion laws.

Violations of FCPA, antitrust or other anti-corruption or anti-collusion laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our operations, cause reputational harm, involve significant management distraction and result in a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

We also must comply with various laws and regulations relating to the export of products, services and technology from the U.S. and other countries having jurisdiction over our operations. In the U.S., these laws include, among others, the Export Administration Regulations administered by the Department of Commerce and embargoes and sanctions regulations administered by the Department of the Treasury. In addition, U.S. foreign policy may restrict or prohibit business dealings with certain individuals, entities or countries; changes in these prohibitions can happen suddenly and could result in a material adverse effect on our operations.

For a description of current material legal proceedings, see "Note 21: Contingent Liabilities" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report.

Our defined benefit Pension plans are subject to financial market risk that could adversely affect our results.

The performance of the financial markets and interest rates can impact our defined benefit pension plan expenses and funding obligations. Significant decreases in the discount rate or investment losses on plan assets may increase our funding obligations. Significant decreases in the discount rate or investment losses on plan assets may increase our funding obligations and adversely impact our financial results. See "Note 13: Employee Benefit Plans" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report for further discussion on pension plans and related obligations and contingencies.
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Information security, data privacy and identity protection may require significant resources and present certain risks to our business, reputation and financial condition.

We collect, store, have access to and otherwise process certain confidential or sensitive data that may be subject to data privacy and cybersecurity laws, regulations or customer-imposed controls, including proprietary business information, personal data and other information. We also develop products that may in certain cases collect, store, have access to, and otherwise process certain confidential or sensitive data of our customers who purchase and use such products either separately or as a part of another product or system. Although we seek to protect such data and design our products to enable our customers to use them while complying with applicable data privacy and cybersecurity laws and/or customer-imposed controls, both our internal systems and products may be vulnerable to hacking or other cyber-attacks, material security breaches, theft, programming errors or employee errors, which could lead to the compromise of such data, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of information, improper use of our systems, software solutions or networks, defective products, production downtimes and/or operational disruptions in violation of applicable law and/or contractual obligations. A significant actual or perceived risk of theft, loss, fraudulent use or misuse of customer, employee or other data, whether by us, our suppliers, distributors, customers or other third parties, as a result of employee error or malfeasance, or as a result of the imaging, software, security and other products we incorporate into our products, as well as non-compliance with applicable industry standards or our contractual or other legal obligations or privacy and information security policies regarding such data, could result in costs, fines, litigation or regulatory actions, or could lead customers to select products and services of our competitors. In addition, any such event could harm our reputation, cause unfavorable publicity or otherwise adversely affect certain potential customers’ perception of the security and reliability of our services as well as our credibility and reputation, which could result in lost sales. In addition, because of the global nature of our business, both our internal systems and products must comply with the applicable laws, regulations and standards in a number of jurisdictions, and government enforcement actions and violations of data privacy and cybersecurity laws could be costly or interrupt our business operations. Any of the foregoing factors could result in reputational damage or civil or governmental proceedings, which could result in a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Our business and financial performance depend on continued substantial investment in information technology infrastructure, which may not yield anticipated benefits, and may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks on information technology infrastructure and products and other business disruptions.

The efficient operation of our business will require continued substantial investment in technology infrastructure systems, including shifting from virtual private networks to cloud-based networks, and we must attract and retain qualified people to operate these systems, expand and improve them, integrate new systems effectively and efficiently convert to new systems when required. An inability to fund, acquire and implement these systems might impact our ability to respond effectively to changing customer expectations, manage our business, scale our solutions effectively or impact our customer service levels, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage and negatively impact our financial results. Repeated or prolonged interruptions of service due to problems with our systems or third-party technologies, whether or not in our control, could have a significant negative impact on our reputation and our ability to sell products and services. Furthermore, we are highly dependent upon a variety of internal computer and telecommunication systems to operate our business. Failure to design, develop and implement new technology infrastructure systems in an effective and timely manner, or to adequately invest in and maintain these systems, could result in the diversion of management’s attention and resources and could materially adversely affect our operating results, competitive position and ability to efficiently manage our business. Our existing information systems may become obsolete, requiring us to transition our systems to a new platform. Such a transition could be time consuming, costly and damaging to our competitive position, and could require additional management resources. Failure to implement and deploy new systems or replacement systems on the schedules anticipated, could materially adversely affect our operating results. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Separation” below for a discussion of risks associated with transitioning our IT infrastructure systems under the TSA .

In addition, our business may be impacted by disruptions to our own or third-party information technology (“IT”) infrastructure, which could result from (among other causes) cyber-attacks on or failures of such infrastructure or compromises to its physical security, as well as from damaging weather or other acts of nature. Cyber-based risks, in particular, are evolving and include attacks on our IT infrastructure, as well as attacks targeting the security, integrity and/or availability of the hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted in our products, including after the purchase of those products and when they are installed into third-party products, facilities or infrastructure. Such attacks could disrupt our business operations, our systems or those of third parties, and could impact the ability of our products to work as intended. We have experienced cyber-based attacks, and, due to the evolving threat landscape, may continue to experience them going forward, potentially with more frequency. We continue to make investments and adopt measures designed to enhance our
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protection, detection, response, and recovery capabilities, and to mitigate potential risks to our technology, products, services and operations from potential cyber-attacks. However, given the unpredictability, nature and scope of cyber-attacks, it is possible that potential vulnerabilities could go undetected for an extended period. As a result of a cyber-attack, we could potentially be subject to production downtimes, operational delays or other detrimental impacts on our operations or ability to provide products and services to our customers; destruction or corruption of data; security breaches; manipulation or improper use of our or third-party systems, networks or products; financial losses from remedial actions, loss of business, potential liability, penalties, fines and/or damage to our reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. Due to the evolving nature of such risks, the impact of any potential incident cannot be predicted. Any disruption to our business due to such issues, or an increase in our costs to cover these issues that is greater than what we have anticipated, could have an adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

There can be no assurance that our systems will not fail or experience disruptions, and any significant failure or disruption of these systems could prevent us from making sales, ordering supplies, delivering products, providing functional products and otherwise conducting our business.

We depend on our intellectual property, and have access to certain intellectual property and information of our customers, suppliers and distributors; infringement or failure to protect our intellectual property could adversely affect our future growth and success.

We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, nondisclosure agreements, customer and supplier agreements, license agreements, information technology security systems, internal controls and compliance systems and other measures to protect our intellectual property. We also rely on nondisclosure agreements, information technology security systems and other measures to protect certain customer and supplier information and intellectual property that we have in our possession or to which we have access. Our efforts to protect such intellectual property and proprietary rights may not be sufficient. We cannot be sure that our pending patent applications will result in the issuance of patents to us, that patents issued to or licensed by us in the past or in the future will not be challenged or circumvented by competitors or that these patents will be found to be valid or sufficiently broad to preclude our competitors from introducing technologies similar to those covered by our patents and patent applications. Our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights also may be limited. In addition, we may be the target of competitor or other third-party patent enforcement actions seeking substantial monetary damages or seeking to prevent the sale and marketing of certain of our products or services. Our competitive position also may be adversely impacted by limitations on our ability to obtain possession of, and ownership or necessary licenses concerning, data important to the development or provision of our products or service offerings, or by limitations on our ability to restrict the use by others of data related to our products or services. Any of these events or factors could subject us to judgments, penalties and significant litigation costs or temporarily or permanently disrupt our sales and marketing of the affected products or services and could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Additional tax expense or additional tax exposures could affect our future profitability.

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various international jurisdictions. Changes to tax laws and regulations, including as a result of the new U.S. Administration, as well as changes and conflicts in related interpretations or other tax guidance could materially impact our tax receivables and liabilities and our deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities. Additionally, in the ordinary course of business, we are subject to examinations by various tax authorities. In addition, governmental authorities in various jurisdictions could launch new examinations and expand existing examinations. The global and diverse nature of our operations means that these risks will continue and additional examinations, proceedings and contingencies will arise from time to time. Our competitive position, cash flows, results of operation or financial condition may be affected by the outcome of examinations, proceedings and contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty.

See “Business Overview,” “Results of Operations - Income Taxes” under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” "Note 2: Significant Accounting Policies" and "Note 15: Income Taxes" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report, for further discussion on income taxes and related contingencies, including our accounting and assessment of the effect of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA").

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We may not realize expected benefits from our cost reduction and restructuring efforts, and our profitability may be hurt or our business otherwise might be adversely affected.

In order to operate more efficiently and cost effectively, we may adjust employment, optimize our footprint or undertake other restructuring activities. These activities are complex and may involve or require significant changes to our operations. If we do not successfully manage restructuring activities, expected efficiencies and benefits might be delayed or not realized, and our operations and business could be disrupted. Risks associated with these actions and other workforce management issues include unfavorable political responses, unforeseen delays in the implementation of anticipated workforce reductions, additional unexpected costs, adverse effects on employee morale, the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of employees or work stoppages, any of which may impair our ability to achieve anticipated cost reductions, otherwise harm our business or have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Anti-takeover provisions could enable our Board of Directors to resist a takeover attempt by a third party and limit the power of our shareholders.

Otis’ amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with Otis’ Board of Directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include, among others, (1) the ability of our remaining directors to fill vacancies on Otis’ Board of Directors (except in an instance where a director is removed by shareholders and the resulting vacancy is filled by shareholders); (2) limitations on shareholders’ ability to call a special shareholder meeting; (3) rules regarding how shareholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at shareholder meetings; and (4) the right of Otis’ Board of Directors to issue preferred stock without shareholder approval.

In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”), which could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control that you may favor. Section 203 provides that, subject to limited exceptions, persons that acquire, or are affiliated with persons that acquire, more than 15 percent of the outstanding voting stock of a Delaware corporation may not engage in a business combination with that corporation, including by merger, consolidation or acquisitions of additional shares, for a three-year period following the date on which that person or any of its affiliates becomes the holder of more than 15 percent of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock.

We believe these provisions protect our shareholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with Otis’ Board of Directors and by providing Otis’ Board of Directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make Otis immune from takeovers; however, these provisions apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that Otis’ Board of Directors determines is not in the best interests of Otis and our shareholders. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.

In addition, an acquisition or issuance of our stock could trigger the application of Section 355(e) of the Internal Revenue Code ("Code"), causing the distribution of Common Stock pursuant to the Separation to be taxable to RTX. Under the TMA, we would be required to indemnify RTX for the resulting tax, and this indemnity obligation might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control that our shareholders may consider favorable.

Our amended and restated bylaws designate the state courts within the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could discourage lawsuits against Otis and our directors and officers.

Otis’ amended and restated bylaws provide that unless Otis’ Board of Directors otherwise determines, the state courts within the State of Delaware (or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Otis, any action asserting a claim for or based on a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director or officer or other employee of Otis to Otis or its shareholders, including a claim alleging the aiding and abetting of such a breach of fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against Otis or any current or former director or officer or other employee of Otis arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws, any action asserting a claim relating to or involving Otis governed by the internal affairs doctrine, or any action
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asserting an “internal corporate claim” as that term is defined in Section 115 of the DGCL.

To the fullest extent permitted by law, this exclusive forum provision applies to state and federal law claims, including claims under the federal securities laws, including the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), although Otis shareholders will not be deemed to have waived Otis’ compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. The enforceability of similar exclusive forum provisions in other companies’ organizational documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that, in connection with claims subject to exclusive federal jurisdiction, a court could find the exclusive forum provision contained in the amended and restated bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

This exclusive forum provision may limit the ability of our shareholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such shareholders find favorable for disputes with Otis or our directors or officers, which may discourage such lawsuits against Otis and our directors and officers. Alternatively, if a court were to find this exclusive forum provision inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings described above, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Risks Related to the Separation

Our historical information is not necessarily indicative of the results that we will achieve as a separate, publicly traded company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.

The historical information in this Form 10-K and our 2020 Annual Report for the periods prior to the Separation is derived from the combined financial statements and accounting records of our former parent UTC and is based on a number of estimates and assumptions. Accordingly, such historical financial information does not necessarily reflect the financial condition, results of operations or cash flows that we will achieve as a separate, publicly traded company. Prior to the Separation, our business had been operated by UTC as part of its broader corporate organization, rather than as an independent company. As part of our former parent UTC, we were able to enjoy certain benefits from UTC’s operating diversity, purchasing power and opportunities to pursue integrated strategies with UTC’s other businesses. Additionally, UTC or one of its affiliates performed or helped perform various corporate functions for us, such as accounting, auditing, tax, legal, human resources, investor relations, risk management, treasury and other general and administrative functions. Our historical and pro forma financial results reflect allocations of corporate expenses from UTC for such functions, which are likely to be less than the expenses we will incur as a separate publicly traded company. In addition, the diversification of our sales, costs, and cash flows have diminished as a stand-alone company, such that our results of operations, cash flows, working capital and financing requirements may be subject to increased volatility and our ability to fund capital expenditures and investments, and service debt may be diminished and we are no longer able to use cash flow from UTC's other businesses as part of its centralized cash management systems to fund our investments and operations. Accordingly, for these reasons, as well as the additional Risks Related to the Separation noted below, we may not achieve the expected benefits of the Separation.

As a result of the Separation, certain members of management, directors and shareholders may own stock in RTX, Otis and Carrier, and as a result may face actual or potential conflicts of interest.

Management and directors of each of RTX, Otis and Carrier may own common stock in all three companies as a result of the Separation. This ownership overlap could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when the management and directors of one company face decisions that could have different implications for themselves and the other two companies. For example, potential conflicts of interest could arise in connection with the resolution of any dispute regarding the terms of the agreements governing the separation and Otis’ relationship with RTX and Carrier thereafter.

We could experience temporary interruptions in business operations and incur additional costs as we further develop information technology infrastructure and transition our data to our stand-alone systems.

We are in the process of finalizing development of an IT infrastructure and systems to support our critical business functions, including accounting and reporting, in order to replace many of the systems and functions our former parent UTC previously provided or currently provides under the TSA. We may experience temporary interruptions in business operations if we cannot transition effectively to our own stand-alone systems and functions, which could disrupt our business operations and have a material adverse effect on our profitability.
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We may not be able to engage in desirable capital-raising or strategic transactions as a result of the Separation and the related TMA.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, a spin-off that otherwise qualifies for tax-free treatment can be rendered taxable to the parent corporation and its shareholders as a result of certain post-spin-off transactions, including certain acquisitions of shares or assets of the spun-off corporation. To preserve the tax-free treatment of the Separation, and in addition to Otis’ indemnity obligation described below, the TMA restricts us, for the two-year period following the Separation, except in specific circumstances, from (1) entering into any transaction pursuant to which all or a portion of the shares of Otis stock would be acquired, whether by merger or otherwise; (2) issuing equity securities beyond certain thresholds; (3) repurchasing shares of Otis stock other than in certain open-market transactions; and (4) ceasing to actively conduct certain of our businesses. The TMA also prohibits us from taking or failing to take any other action that would prevent the Separation and certain related transactions from qualifying as a transaction that is generally tax-free, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code or for applicable non-U.S. income tax purposes. Further, the TMA imposes similar restrictions on us and our subsidiaries during the two-year period following the Separation that are intended to prevent certain transactions undertaken as part of the internal reorganization from failing to qualify as transactions that are generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code or for applicable non-U.S. income tax purposes. These restrictions may limit our ability to pursue certain equity issuances, strategic transactions, repurchases or other transactions that we may otherwise believe to be in the best interests of our shareholders or that might increase the value of our business.

In connection with the Separation, each of RTX, Otis and Carrier agreed to indemnify the other parties for certain liabilities. If we are required to pay under these indemnities to RTX and/or Carrier, our financial results could be negatively impacted. Also, the RTX or Carrier indemnities may not be sufficient to hold us harmless from the full amount of liabilities for which RTX and Carrier are allocated responsibility, and RTX and/or Carrier may not be able to satisfy their respective indemnification obligations in the future.

Pursuant to the Separation Agreement, the TMA and the EMA, each party agreed to indemnify the other parties for certain liabilities. Indemnities that we may be required to provide RTX and/or Carrier are not subject to any cap, may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that RTX and/or Carrier has agreed to retain. The indemnities from RTX and Carrier for our benefit may not be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, and RTX and/or Carrier may not be able to fully satisfy their respective indemnification obligations. Any amounts we are required to pay pursuant to such indemnification obligations and other liabilities could require us to divert cash that would otherwise have been used in furtherance of our operating business. Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from RTX or Carrier, as applicable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If the Separation, together with certain related transactions, were to fail to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including as a result of subsequent acquisitions of our stock or the stock of RTX, we, as well as RTX, Carrier, and RTX's shareholders, could be subject to significant tax liabilities. In addition, if certain internal restructuring transactions were to fail to qualify as transactions that are generally tax-free for U.S. federal or non-U.S. income tax purposes, we, as well as RTX and Carrier could be subject to significant tax liabilities. In certain circumstances, we could be required to indemnify RTX for material taxes and other related amounts pursuant to indemnification obligations under the TMA.

In connection the Separation, our former parent UTC received a ruling from the IRS regarding certain U.S. federal income tax matters relating to the Separation and an opinion of outside counsel regarding the qualification of certain elements of the Separation under Section 355 of the Code. The IRS ruling and the opinion of counsel were based upon and rely on, among other things, various facts and assumptions, as well as certain representations, statements and undertakings of UTC (and RTX), Otis and Carrier, including those relating to the past and future conduct of UTC (and RTX), Otis and Carrier. Notwithstanding receipt of the IRS ruling and the opinion of counsel, the IRS could determine that the Separation and/or certain related transactions should be treated as taxable transactions for U.S. federal income tax purposes if it determines that any of the representations, assumptions or undertakings upon which the IRS ruling or the opinion of counsel was based were inaccurate or have not been complied with. In addition, the IRS ruling does not address all of the issues that are relevant to determining whether the Separation, together with certain related transactions, qualifies as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The opinion of counsel represents the judgment of such counsel and is not binding on the IRS or any court, and the IRS or a court may disagree with the conclusions in the opinion of counsel. Accordingly, notwithstanding
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receipt by UTC of the IRS ruling and the opinion of counsel, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not assert that the Separation and/or certain related transactions did not qualify for tax-free treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes or that a court would not sustain such a challenge.

If the distribution of Common Stock pursuant to the Separation were to fail to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, in general, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, RTX would recognize a taxable gain as if it had sold the Common Stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value, and RTX shareholders who received Common Stock in the distribution would be subject to tax as if they had received a taxable distribution equal to the fair market value of such shares. Even if the distribution of Common Stock pursuant to the Separation were to otherwise qualify as a tax-free transaction under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, it may result in taxable gain to RTX (but not its shareholders) under Section 355(e) of the Code if the Separation were deemed to be part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which one or more persons acquire, directly or indirectly, shares representing a 50 percent or greater interest (by vote or value) in RTX or Otis. For this purpose, any acquisitions of RTX or Otis shares within the period beginning two years before the distribution of Common Stock pursuant to the Separation and ending two years after such distribution are presumed to be part of such a plan, although RTX or Otis may be able to rebut that presumption (including by qualifying for one or more safe harbors under applicable Treasury Regulations).

In addition, in connection with and prior to the Separation, UTC and its subsidiaries completed various internal reorganization transactions. With respect to certain transactions undertaken as part of the internal reorganization, UTC obtained tax rulings in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions and/or opinions of external tax advisors, in each case, regarding the tax treatment of such transactions. Such tax rulings and opinions were based upon and relied on, among other things, various facts and assumptions, as well as certain representations (including with respect to certain valuation matters relating to the internal reorganization), statements and undertakings of UTC (and RTX), Otis, Carrier or their respective subsidiaries. If any of these representations or statements were, or become, inaccurate or incomplete, or if RTX, Otis, Carrier or any of their respective subsidiaries do not fulfill or otherwise comply with any such undertakings or covenants, such tax rulings and/or opinions may be invalid or the conclusions reached therein could be jeopardized. Further, notwithstanding receipt of any such tax rulings and/or opinions, there can be no assurance that the relevant taxing authorities will not assert that the tax treatment of the relevant transactions differs from the conclusions reached in the relevant tax rulings and/or opinions. In the event the relevant taxing authorities prevail with any challenge in respect of any relevant transaction, we, as well as RTX and Carrier could be subject to significant tax liabilities.

Under the TMA, Otis generally is required to indemnify RTX and Carrier for any taxes resulting from the Separation and certain related transactions (and any related costs and other damages) to the extent such amounts resulted from (1) an acquisition of all or a portion of the equity securities or assets of Otis, whether by merger or otherwise (and regardless of whether we participated in or otherwise facilitated the acquisition), (2) other actions or failures to act by Otis or (3) certain of Otis’ representations, covenants or undertakings contained in any of the separation-related agreements and documents or in any documents relating to the IRS ruling and/or the opinion of counsel being incorrect or violated. Further, under the TMA, we generally are required to indemnify RTX and Carrier for a specified portion of any taxes (and any related costs and other damages) (a) arising as a result of the failure of the Separation and certain related transactions to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free (including as a result of Section 355(e) of the Code) or a failure of any internal separation transaction that is intended to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free to so qualify, in each case, to the extent such amounts do not result from a disqualifying action by, or acquisition of equity securities of, Otis, Carrier or RTX or (b) arising from an adjustment, pursuant to an audit or other tax proceeding, with respect to any transaction undertaken in connection with the Separation that is not intended to qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free. Any such indemnity obligations could be material.

Potential liabilities may arise due to fraudulent transfer considerations, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In connection with the Separation, our former parent UTC undertook several corporate reorganization transactions involving its subsidiaries, which, including the Separation of Otis, may be subject to various fraudulent conveyance and transfer laws. If, under these laws, a court were to determine that, at the time of the separation, any entity involved in these reorganization transactions or the separation: (1) was insolvent, was rendered insolvent by reason of the separation, or had remaining assets constituting unreasonably small capital, and (2) received less than fair consideration in connection with the reorganization; or intended to incur, or believed it would incur, debts beyond its ability to pay these debts as they matured, then the court could void the Separation, in whole or in part, as a fraudulent conveyance or transfer. The court could then require our shareholders to return to RTX some or all of the shares of the Common Stock issued in the distribution, or require RTX or Otis, as the case may be, to fund liabilities of the other company for the benefit of creditors. The measure of insolvency would vary
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depending upon the jurisdiction and the applicable law. Generally, however, an entity would be considered insolvent if the fair value of its assets was less than the amount of its liabilities (including the probable amount of contingent liabilities), or if it incurred debt beyond its ability to repay the debt as it matures. No assurance can be given as to what standard a court would apply to determine insolvency or that a court would determine that Otis or any of its subsidiaries were solvent at the time of or after giving effect to the distribution.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We have a direct physical presence in approximately 80 countries with an overall property portfolio comprising approximately 16 million square feet of space. We have approximately 2,300 facilities, over 90 percent of which are leased and approximately 47 percent, 38 percent and 15 percent of which are located in EMEA, Asia Pacific and the Americas, respectively. We operate over 1,400 branches and offices, 11 R&D centers and 18 manufacturing facilities globally. Our principal manufacturing facilities are located across Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, India, Korea, Russia, Spain, and the United States, of which 10 are owned. Our principal R&D centers are located in China, the United States, India, France, Germany, Japan and Spain. Our branches and R&D centers typically support both our New Equipment and Service segments.

Our fixed assets as of December 31, 2020 include manufacturing facilities and non-manufacturing facilities, such as warehouses, and a substantial quantity of machinery and equipment, most of which are general purpose machinery and equipment using special jigs, tools and fixtures and in many instances having automatic control features and special adaptations. The facilities, warehouses, machinery and equipment in use as of December 31, 2020 are substantially in good operating condition.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

For a discussion regarding material legal proceedings, see "Note 21, Contingent Liabilities" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report.


Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.
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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "OTIS". There were approximately 26,400 registered shareholders at January 31, 2021. The Performance Graph appearing in our 2020 Annual Report, filed as Exhibit 13 to this Form 10-K, contains the following data relating to our Common Stock: cumulative shareholder return. The information required by Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference to Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

On April 27, 2020, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program for up to $1 billion of Common Stock. Under this program, shares may be purchased on the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, or under accelerated share repurchase programs under plans complying with rules 10b5-1 and 10b-18 under the Exchange Act. We did not repurchase any shares under the program in 2020 as we focused on deleveraging following the Separation.


Item 6.    Selected Financial Data

The Five-Year Summary appearing in our 2020 Annual Report, filed as Exhibit 13 to this Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference. See "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" in our 2020 Annual Report for a description of the Separation from UTC and any accounting changes materially affecting the comparability of the information reflected in the Five-Year Summary.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The information set forth in the section entitled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our 2020 Annual Report, filed as Exhibit 13 to this Form 10-K, is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

For information concerning market risk sensitive instruments, see discussion under the heading "Market Risk and Risk Management" in "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our 2020 Annual Report, and under the headings "Foreign Exchange Exposures" and "Derivatives and Hedging Activity" in "Note 2: Summary of Accounting Policies," as well as "Note 17: Financial Instruments" to the Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2020 Annual Report, filed as Exhibit 13 to this Form 10-K.

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

The 2020 and 2019 Consolidated Balance Sheets, and other consolidated financial statements for the years ended 2020, 2019 and 2018, together with the report thereon of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP dated February 5, 2021 in our 2020 Annual Report are incorporated herein by reference. The 2020 and 2019 unaudited Selected Quarterly Financial Data appearing in our 2020 Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

None.

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Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

As required by Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act, we carried out an evaluation under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the President and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO"), the Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") and the Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer ("CAO"), of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2020. There are inherent limitations to the effectiveness of any system of disclosure controls and procedures, including the possibility of human error and the circumvention or overriding of the controls and procedures. Accordingly, even effective disclosure controls and procedures can only provide reasonable assurance of achieving their control objectives. Based upon our evaluation, our CEO, our CFO and our CAO have concluded that, as of December 31, 2020, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the applicable rules and forms, and that it is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our CEO, our CFO and our CAO, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external reporting purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Our management has assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. In making its assessment, management has utilized the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013). Our management has concluded that based on its assessment, our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2020. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in its report which appears in our 2020 Annual Report.

Item 9B. Other Information

None.
PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information required by Item 10 with respect to directors, the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors and audit committee financial experts is incorporated herein by reference to the section of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Corporate governance" (under the subheadings "Proposal 1: Election of directors", "Our board nominees", and "Our leadership and board structure" (including under the subheading "Board committees")).

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Information about our Executive Officers

The following persons are executive officers of Otis Worldwide Corporation:

NamePositionOther Business Experience Since 1/1/2016
Age as of 2/5/2021
Bernardo Calleja FernandezPresident, Otis EMEA (since November 2020)
President of Otis South Europe & Africa, Otis; President, Otis South Europe & Turkey, Otis
58
James F. CramerPresident, Otis Americas (since June 2020)Regional Vice President, U.S. Western Region, Otis 56
Rahul GhaiExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (since April 2020)
Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Otis; Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Harris Corporation
49
Laurie P. Havanec*Executive Vice President and Chief People Officer (since April 2020)
Corporate Vice President, Talent, UTC;
Chief Human Resources Officer, Institution Businesses, Aetna, Inc.
60
Christopher J. KearneyExecutive Chairman (since April 2020)
Non-Executive Chairman, SPX FLOW, Inc.
65
Nora E. LaFreniereExecutive Vice President, Chief General Counsel & Corporate Secretary (since April 2020)
Vice President and General Counsel, Otis
49
Judith F. MarksPresident and Chief Executive Officer (since April 2020)
President, Otis; Chief Executive Officer, Siemens USA and Dresser-Rand (a Siemens company); Executive Vice President, New Equipment Solutions, Dresser-Rand
57
Stephane de MontlivaultPresident, Otis Asia Pacific (since April 2020)
President, Otis Asia Pacific; President, Otis Northeast Asia, Otis
President, Northeast Asia and President of Nippon Otis Elevator Company
61
Michael P. RyanVice President and Chief Accounting Officer (since April 2020)
Vice President and Assistant Controller, UTC; and Executive Director, Corporate Accounting and Controls, UTC
51
Peiming Zheng (Perry)President, Otis China (April 2020)
President, Otis China; President, Business & Industrial Systems China, Otis
53

All of the officers serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors of Otis Worldwide Corporation.

* As previously disclosed, Ms. Havanec provided the Company with notice of her intent to leave the Company on February 5, 2021.

Information concerning Section 16(a) compliance is incorporated herein by reference to the section of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Other important information" under the subheading "Delinquent section 16(a) reports." We have adopted a code of ethics, the Otis Absolutes, that applies to all our directors, officers, employees and representatives. This code is publicly available on our website at http://www.otis.com/How-We-Work/Ethics-And-Compliance/Pages/Default.aspx. Amendments to the code of ethics and any grant of a waiver from a provision of the code requiring disclosure under applicable SEC rules will be disclosed on our website. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines and
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the charters of our Board of Directors’ Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and Nominations and Governance Committee are available on our website at http://www.otis.com/Who-We-Are/Corporate-Governance/Pages/default.aspx. These materials may also be requested in print free of charge by writing to our Investor Relations Department at Otis Worldwide Corporation, One Carrier Place, Investor Relations, Farmington, CT 06032.


Item 11. Executive Compensation

The information required by Item 11 is incorporated herein by reference to the sections of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Executive compensation," "Compensation of directors" and "Report of the compensation committee."

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information relating to security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management is incorporated herein by reference to the section of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Other important information" under the subheading "Share ownership" (“Beneficial stock ownership of directors and executive officers" and certain beneficial owners”).

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2020 concerning Common Stock issuable under Otis’ equity compensation plans.

Plan category
Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights
Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a)
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders3,825,504
(1)
$60.4127,938,146
(2)
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders
-
-
-

(1) Consists of the following issuable shares of Common Stock awarded under the Otis Worldwide Corporation 2020 Long-Term Incentive Plan ("LTIP"): (i) shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding non-qualified stock options; (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Stock Appreciation Rights ("SARs"); (iii) shares of Common Stock issuable pursuant to outstanding restricted stock unit and performance share unit awards, assuming performance at the target level (up to an additional 9,391 shares of Common Stock could be issued if performance goals are achieved above target); and (iv) shares of Common Stock issuable upon the settlement of outstanding deferred stock units and restricted stock units under the Otis Worldwide Corporation Board of Directors Stock Unit Plan. Under the LTIP, each SAR is exercisable for a number of shares of Common Stock having a value equal to the increase in the market price of a share of such stock from the date the SAR was granted. For purposes of determining the total number of shares to be issued in respect of outstanding SARs, we have used the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") closing price for a share of Common Stock on December 31, 2020 of $67.55. The weighted-average exercise price shown in the column above takes into account only the shares identified in clauses (i) and (ii).

(2) Represents the maximum number of shares of Common Stock available to be awarded under the LTIP as of December 31, 2020. Performance share units and restricted stock units ("Full Share Awards") will result in a reduction in the number of shares of Common Stock available for delivery under the LTIP in an amount equal to twice the number of shares to which the award corresponds under the terms of the LTIP. Stock options and SARs do not constitute Full Share Awards and will result in a reduction in the number of shares of Common Stock available for delivery under the 2020 LTIP on a one-for-one basis.

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The information required by Item 13 is incorporated herein by reference to the sections of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Corporate governance" under the subheading "Our board nominees" (including under the subheading "Director independence") and "Other important information" (under the subheading "Transactions with related persons").
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Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

The information required by Item 14 is incorporated by reference to the section of our Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders titled "Appoint an independent auditor for 2021," including the information provided in that section with regard to "Audit Fees," "Audit-Related Fees," "Tax Fees" and "All Other Fees."
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PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule

(a) Financial Statements, Financial Statement Schedules and Exhibits

1.Financial Statements (incorporated herein by reference to the 2020 Annual Report):

Page Number in Annual Report
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm21
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three years ended December 31, 202023
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three years ended December 31, 202024
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2020 and 201925
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the three years ended December 31, 202026
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three years ended December 31, 202027
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements28
Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)66

All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or the notes thereto.

2.Financial Statement Schedule for the three years ended December 31, 2020:

Page Number in Form 10-K
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on Financial Statement Schedule
SCHEDULE II — Valuation and Qualifying Accounts

All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or the notes thereto.

3.Exhibits:

The following list of exhibits includes exhibits submitted with this Form 10-K as filed with the SEC and those incorporated by reference to other filings.

Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
2.1
3.1
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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
3.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
10.14
10.15
10.16
10.17
10.18
10.19
10.20
10.21
10.22
10.23
10.24
10.25
10.26
10.27
10.28
10.29
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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
10.30
10.31
10.32
10.33
10.34
10.35
10.36
13Excerpt from Otis' 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 (following Schedule II in this Form 10-K).
14The Otis Absolutes. The Otis Absolutes may be accessed via Otis’ website at https://www.otisinvestors.com/static-files/d4712262-a281-4b8b-8430-a35803762de3
21
23
24
31.1
31.2
31.3
32
101.INSXBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.*
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.*
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.*
101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.*
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.*
101.PREXBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.*
104Cover Page Interactive Data File - the cover page XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document.
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Notes to Exhibits List:

*    Submitted electronically herewith.

Attached as Exhibit 101 to this report are the following formatted in XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language): (i) Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three years ended December 31, 2020, (ii) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three years ended December 31, 2020, (iii) Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, (iv) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three years ended December 31, 2020, (v) Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the three years ended December 31, 2020, (vi) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, and (vii) Financial Schedule of Valuation and Qualifying Accounts.

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

None.
34


Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

OTIS WORLDWIDE CORPORATION
(Registrant)
Dated:February 5, 2021by:/s/ RAHUL GHAI
Rahul Ghai
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
(on behalf of the Registrant and as the Registrant's Principal Financial Officer)
Dated:February 5, 2021by:/s/ MICHAEL P. RYAN
Michael P. Ryan
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
(on behalf of the Registrant and as the Registrant's Principal Accounting Officer)



35


Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.


SignatureTitleDate
/s/ JUDITH F. MARKSDirector, President and Chief Executive OfficerFebruary 5, 2021
Judith F. Marks
/s/ RAHUL GHAIExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial OfficerFebruary 5, 2021
Rahul Ghai
/s/ MICHAEL P. RYANVice President and Chief Accounting OfficerFebruary 5, 2021
Michael P. Ryan
/s/ JEFFREY H. BLACK*Director
Jeffrey H. Black
/s/ KATHY HOPINKAH HANNAN*Director
Kathy Hopinkah Hannan
/s/ SHAILESH G. JEJURIKAR*Director
Shailesh G. Jejurikar
/s/ CHRISTOPHER J. KEARNEY*Director
Christopher J. Kearney
/s/ HAROLD W. MCGRAW III*Director
Harold W. McGraw III
/s/ MARGARET M.V. PRESTON*Director
Margaret M.V. Preston
/s/ SHELLEY STEWART, JR.*Director
Shelley Stewart, Jr.
/s/ JOHN H. WALKER*Director
John H. Walker
*By: /s/ NORA E. LAFRENIERE
Executive Vice President & Chief General Counsel, as Attorney-in-fact
Date: February 5, 2021

36


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on
Financial Statement Schedule


To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Otis Worldwide Corporation

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements referred to in our report dated February 5, 2021 appearing in the 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders of Otis Worldwide Corporation (which report and consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K) also included an audit of the financial statement schedule listed in Item 15(a)(2) of this Form 10-K. In our opinion, this financial statement schedule presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements.



/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Hartford, Connecticut
February 5, 2021


I


OTIS WORLDWIDE CORPORATION
SCHEDULE II - Valuation and Qualifying Accounts
Three years ended December 31, 2020
(Dollars in millions)

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts and Expected Credit Losses:
Balance, December 31, 2017$90 
Provision charged to income10 
Doubtful accounts written off(6)
Other(10)
Balance, December 31, 201884 
Provision charged to income26 
Doubtful accounts written off(19)
Other(8)
Balance, December 31, 201983 
Impact of credit standard adoption28 
Current period provision for expected credit losses40 
Write-offs charged against the allowance for expected credit losses(20)
Other30 
Balance, December 31, 2020$161 
Future Income Tax Benefits - Valuation Allowance
Balance, December 31, 2017$20 
Additions charged to income tax expense15 
Reductions credited to income tax expense(5)
Other adjustments(1)
Balance, December 31, 201829 
Additions charged to income tax expense28 
Reductions credited to income tax expense 
Other adjustments(2)
Balance, December 31, 201955 
Additions charged to income tax expense63 
Reductions credited to income tax expense(13)
Other adjustments, including Separation activity137 
Balance, December 31, 2020$242 



II





Exhibit 13


Excerpt from Otis' 2020 Annual Report to Shareholders for the Year Ended December 31, 2020



Five-Year Summary
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts; shares in millions)20202019201820172016
(Unaudited)
For The Year
Net sales$12,756$13,118$12,915$12,323$11,886
Net income (1)
1,0561,2671,2108091,397
Net income attributable to common shareholders (1)
9061,1161,0496361,197
Basic earnings per share—Net income attributable to common shareholders (2)
2.092.582.421.472.76
Diluted earnings per share—Net income attributable to common shareholders (2)
2.082.582.421.472.76
Cash dividends per common share0.60
At December 31,
Total assets (3)
$10,710$9,687$9,135$9,089$8,584
Total debt (4)
5,96339281818
(1)
2020 amounts include the impact of interest expense on debt, incremental standalone public company costs and non-recurring Separation-related costs. 2019 reflects the absence of unfavorable tax charges incurred in 2018, offset by $69 million of non-recurring costs associated with Otis’ separation from UTC. 2018 amounts include a tax charge of $143 million that will become due when previously reinvested earnings of certain international subsidiaries are remitted. 2017 amounts include a $507 million tax charge, representing the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”) related adjustments. This amount relates to U.S. income tax attributable to previously undistributed earnings of Otis’ international subsidiaries, equity investments and the revaluation of the U.S. deferred income taxes.
(2)
On April 3, 2020, the date of consummation of the Separation, 433,079,455 shares of the Common Stock, were distributed to UTC shareholders of record as of March 19, 2020. This share amount is being utilized for the calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share for all periods presented prior to the Separation.
(3)
The increase in total assets as of December 31, 2020 primarily relates to the impact of foreign exchange rates on foreign-denominated assets and cash provided by operating activities in excess of cash used in investing and financing activities. The increase in total assets as of December 31, 2019 primarily relates to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02—Leases (Topic 842), which Otis adopted as of January 1, 2019.
(4)
The increase in Total Debt as of December 31, 2020 primarily reflects the issuance of $6.3 billion in debt during the year ended December 31, 2020.

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Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

We are the world’s leading elevator and escalator manufacturing, installation and service company. Our Company is organized into two segments, New Equipment and Service. Through our New Equipment segment, we design, manufacture, sell and install a wide range of passenger and freight elevators, as well as escalators and moving walkways for residential and commercial buildings and infrastructure projects. Our New Equipment customers include real-estate and building developers and general contractors who develop and/or design buildings for residential, commercial, retail or mixed-use activity. We sell our New Equipment directly to customers, as well as through agents and distributors.

Through our Service segment, we perform maintenance and repair services for both our own products and those of other manufacturers and provide modernization services to upgrade elevators and escalators. Maintenance services include inspections to ensure code compliance, preventive maintenance offerings and other customized maintenance offerings tailored to meet customer needs, as well as repair services to address equipment and component wear and tear and breakdowns. Modernization services enhance equipment operation and improve building functionality. Modernization offerings can range from relatively simple upgrades of interior finishes and aesthetics to complex upgrades of larger components and sub-systems. Our typical Service customers include building owners, facility managers, housing associations and government agencies that operate buildings where elevators and escalators are installed.

We serve our customers through a global network of approximately 69,000 employees. These include sales personnel, field technicians with separate skills in performing installation and service, as well as engineers driving our continued product development and innovation. We function under a centralized operating model whereby we pursue a global strategy set around New Equipment and Service because we seek to grow our maintenance portfolio, in part, through the conversion of new elevator and escalator installations into service contracts. Accordingly, we benefit from an integrated global strategy, which sets priorities and establishes accountability across the full product lifecycle.

For additional discussion, refer to the "Business Overview" section in our Form 10-K.

Separation from United Technologies Corporation

On April 3, 2020, the Separation of each of Otis and Carrier Global Corporation ("Carrier") from United Technologies Corporation, subsequently renamed Raytheon Technologies Corporation ("UTC" or "RTX", as applicable), into separate independent publicly-traded companies was completed through the distribution of 100% of the outstanding common stock of each of Otis and Carrier to holders of UTC common stock as of the close of business on the record date of March 19, 2020. UTC distributed 433,079,455 shares of Otis' common stock, par value $0.01 per share ("Common Stock") in the Distribution, which was effective at 12:01 a.m. Eastern Time, on April 3, 2020. As a result of the Distribution, UTC shareholders of record received 0.5 shares of Common Stock for every share of UTC common stock. As a result of the Distribution, Otis became an independent, publicly-traded company and its Common Stock is listed under the symbol "OTIS" on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE").

Prior to the Separation on April 3, 2020, our historical financial statements were prepared on a standalone combined basis and were derived from the consolidated financial statements and accounting records of UTC. For the period subsequent to April 3, 2020, our financial statements are presented on a consolidated basis as the Company became a standalone public company. The Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

As a result of the Separation during the year ended December 31, 2020 and our becoming an independent, publicly-traded company, we have incurred non-recurring Separation-related costs and ongoing costs consisting primarily of employee-related costs, costs to establish certain standalone functions and information technology systems, professional services fees, equity award conversions, tax-related items, transaction-related costs and other services. We believe our cash flows from operations will continue to be sufficient to fund any incremental corporate expenses.

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We entered into a transition services agreement ("TSA") with our former parent UTC and Carrier on April 2, 2020, in connection with the Separation pursuant to which RTX provides us with certain services and we provide certain services to RTX for a limited time to help ensure an orderly transition following the Separation. We received and continue to receive services for information technology, technical and engineering support, application support for operations, general administrative services and other support services. Prior to the Separation, costs for these services were allocated from UTC and included in the Company's historical operating expenses and cash flow. For additional discussion, see Note 5 "Related Parties" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In connection with the Separation, we entered into a tax matters agreement ("TMA") with our former parent UTC and Carrier on April 2, 2020, that governs the parties’ respective rights, responsibilities and obligations with respect to tax matters (including responsibility for taxes, entitlement to refunds, allocation of tax attributes, preparation of tax returns, control of tax contests and other tax matters).

Subject to certain exceptions set forth in the TMA, the Company generally is responsible for federal, state and foreign taxes imposed on a separate return basis on the Company (or any of its subsidiaries) with respect to taxable periods (or portions thereof) that ended on or prior to the date of the Distribution.

The TMA provides special rules that allocate responsibility for tax liabilities arising from a failure of the Separation and certain related transactions to qualify for tax-free treatment based on the reasons for such failure. The TMA also imposes restrictions on each of Otis and Carrier during the two-year period following the Distribution that are intended to prevent certain transactions from failing to qualify as transactions that are generally tax-free.

On December 22, 2017, the TCJA was enacted which significantly changed U.S. tax law. This new legislation imposed a one-time toll charge, paid in installments over an 8-year period, on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017. Under the terms of the TMA, Otis is required to indemnify RTX for a percentage of the toll charge installment payments (and any adjustments to any prior toll charge installment payments) due after April 3, 2020. As a result, a portion of the future income tax obligations corresponding to the toll charge has been reclassified as a contractual indemnity obligation within Other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. For additional discussion, see Note 15 "Income Taxes" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

In connection with the Separation, we entered into an Employee Matters Agreement ("EMA") and Intellectual Property Agreement with UTC and Carrier on April 2, 2020. These agreements are not expected to have a material impact on the financial results of Otis.

Impact of COVID-19 on our Company

The results of our operations and overall financial performance were impacted due to the COVID-19 pandemic during the year ended December 31, 2020. COVID-19 could have a negative impact to our business, including net sales and overall financial performance in 2021, as a result of the following:

Customer liquidity constraints and related credit reserves
Temporary closure or reduced capacity of our factory operations and those of our suppliers
Limited new equipment job site closures
Cancellations or delays of customer orders
Challenges in accessing units to provide maintenance and repair services
Customer demand impacting our new equipment, maintenance and repair, and modernization businesses

We currently do not expect any significant impact to our capital and financial resources, including our overall liquidity position based on our available cash and cash equivalents and our access to credit facilities and the capital markets, from the COVID-19 pandemic. We are focused on navigating these challenges presented by COVID-19 by continuing to preserve our liquidity and manage our cash flow by taking the necessary measures to meet our short-term liquidity needs. Our cost containment actions have included, and could include in the future, but are not limited to, reducing our discretionary spending, reducing payroll costs and restructuring.

See the Liquidity and Financial Condition section for further detail.

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We have not experienced during the year-ended December 31, 2020 any material impairments to our goodwill, intangible asset and long-lived asset balances as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and do not currently anticipate any as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in the future.

Germany Fire

In the quarter ended June 30, 2020 there was a fire at the Company’s manufacturing facility in Germany. As a result of the fire, the Company initially recognized immaterial losses related to the write-down of related fixed assets and facilities and incurred immaterial impacts to operating income due to business interruption during the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company has submitted an insurance claim related to the fire for both property damage and business interruption insurance.

Based on the developments of the insurance claim, the Company has recorded a gain on an expected insurance recovery relating to property damage of approximately $17 million, that is recorded in Other (expense) income, net on the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2020. The Company is continuing to work with insurers to determine the final amounts recoverable for both impacted assets and business interruption. We do not anticipate any additional material impact to our operations in the future from this event.

See Part I, Item 1A,"Risk Factors" in the Form 10-K for further discussion.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Net Sales

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Net sales$12,756 $13,118 $12,915 
Percentage change year-over-year(2.8)%1.6 %4.8 %

The factors contributing to the total percentage change year-over-year in total Net sales are as follows:
20202019
Organic volume(2.1)%4.7 %
Foreign currency translation(0.4)%(3.1)%
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(0.2)%(0.1)%
Other(0.1)%0.1 %
Total % change(2.8)%1.6 %

The Organic volume decrease of (2.1)% for 2020 was driven by decreases in organic sales of (4.0)% in the New Equipment segment and (0.7)% in the Service segment.

The Organic volume increase of 4.7% for 2019 was driven by increases in organic sales of 4.2% in the New Equipment segment and 5.1% in the Service segment.

See "Segment Review" below for a discussion of Net sales by segment.

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Cost of Products and Services Sold

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Cost of products and services sold$8,977 $9,292 $9,189 
Percentage change year-over-year(3.4)%1.1 %6.6 %

The factors contributing to the percentage change year-over-year in total cost of products and services sold are as follows:
20202019
Organic volume(2.7)%4.6 %
Foreign currency translation(0.5)%(3.3)%
Acquisitions and divestitures, net(0.2)%(0.1)%
Restructuring %(0.1)%
Total % change(3.4)%1.1 %

The organic volume decrease in total cost of products and services sold in 2020 was driven by the organic sales decrease noted above, productivity and cost containment actions.

The organic volume increase in cost of products and services sold in 2019 was primarily driven by the organic sales increase above.

Gross Margin

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Gross margin$3,779 $3,826 $3,726 
Gross margin percentage29.6 %29.2 %28.9 %

Gross margin increased 40 basis points in 2020 when compared to 2019, primarily driven by an increase in the Service margin rate and overall segment mix, partially offset by a decrease in the New Equipment margin rate.

Gross margin increased 30 basis points in 2019 when compared to 2018, primarily driven by an increase in the Service margin rate, partially offset by a decrease in the New Equipment margin rate.

See the Segment Review below for discussion of operating results by segment.

Research and Development

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Research and development$152 $163 $181 
Percentage of Net sales1.2 %1.2 %1.4 %

Research and development spending decreased approximately $11 million, or (6.7)%, in 2020 compared to 2019 primarily as a result of cost containment actions taken in the current year. Research and development expenses remained relatively consistent as a percentage of Net sales. We continue to fund our strategic investment projects and focus on our commitment to Internet of Things technology developing the next generation of connected elevators and escalators.

Research and development in 2019 reflects the benefit of organizational optimization and lower cost allocations from UTC in 2019 compared to 2018.

5


Selling, General and Administrative

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Selling, general and administrative$1,924 $1,810 $1,735 
Percentage of Net sales15.1 %13.8 %13.4 %

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased approximately $114 million, or 6.3%, in 2020, with lower employment costs and lower discretionary spending, including cost containment actions taken in response to COVID-19, and the absence of corporate allocations from UTC, being more than offset by non-recurring Separation-related costs and incremental standalone public company costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased as a percentage of Net sales in 2020, primarily driven by the increase in non-recurring Separation-related costs, incremental standalone public company costs and lower Net sales.

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased approximately $75 million, or 4.3%, in 2019. Excluding the favorable impact of foreign exchange fluctuations (3%), the increase is primarily driven by costs in preparation of our Separation from UTC and higher employment and digital technology costs. See Note 5, "Related Parties" for further discussion on costs related to the Separation.

We are continuously evaluating our cost structure and have implemented restructuring actions as a method of keeping our cost structure competitive. For further discussion, see “Restructuring Costs” below and Note 16, "Restructuring Costs" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Restructuring Costs

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Restructuring costs$77 $54 $69 

We initiate restructuring actions to keep our cost structure competitive. Charges generally arise from severance related to workforce reductions, and to a lesser degree, facility exit and lease termination costs associated with the consolidation of field and manufacturing operations. We continue to closely monitor the economic environment, especially in light of the economic impact of COVID-19, and may undertake further restructuring actions to keep our cost structure aligned with the demands of the prevailing market conditions. Total 2020 restructuring costs include $71 million of costs related to 2020 actions and $6 million of costs related to 2019.

2020 Actions. During 2020, we recorded net pre-tax restructuring charges of $71 million relating to cost reduction actions initiated in 2020. We are targeting to complete in 2021 the majority of the remaining workforce cost reduction actions initiated in 2020. Approximately 97% of the total expected pre-tax charges will require cash payments, which we have funded and expect to continue to fund with cash generated from operations. During 2020, we had cash outflows of approximately $29 million related to the 2020 actions. We expect to incur additional restructuring charges of $15 million to complete these actions. We expect recurring pre-tax savings in continuing operations to increase to approximately $57 million annually over the two-year period subsequent to initiating the actions.

2019 Actions. During 2020 and 2019, we recorded net pre-tax restructuring charges of $6 million and $45 million, respectively, for actions initiated in 2019. Approximately 100% of the total pre-tax charge will require cash payments, which we have and expect to continue to fund with cash generated from operations. During 2020, we had cash outflows of approximately $15 million related to the 2019 actions. We expect to incur additional restructuring charges of $3 million to complete these actions. We expect recurring pre-tax savings to increase over the two-year period after initiating the actions to be approximately $45 million annually, of which approximately $35 million was realized during 2020, net of the current year charges.

In addition, we recorded net pre-tax restructuring costs totaling $0 and $9 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, for restructuring actions initiated in 2018 and prior years. For additional discussion of restructuring, see Note 16, "Restructuring Costs" in the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Other Income (Expense), Net

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Other income (expense), net$(64)$(39)$25 

Other income (expense), net primarily includes the impact of changes in the fair value and settlement of embedded and foreign exchange derivatives, gains or losses on sale of businesses and fixed assets, earnings from equity method investments, fair value changes on equity securities, impairments, non-recurring Separation-related expenses, gains on expected insurance recoveries and certain other infrequent operating income and expense items.

The year-over-year increase in Other income (expense), net in 2020 when compared to 2019 is driven by current year fixed asset impairments of approximately $(71) million and associated license costs of approximately $(14) million and non-recurring Separation-related expenses. These were partially offset by favorable mark-to-market adjustments on foreign currency derivatives of approximately $46 million when compared to the prior year, the absence of the loss on the sale of a business of approximately $19 million included in the 2019 results and a non-recurring gain of approximately $17 million related to an expected insurance recovery recognized for property damage as a result of the fire in our manufacturing facility in Germany in the current year.

The year-over-year change in Other income (expense), net in 2019 when compared to 2018 is primarily due to an increase in unfavorable mark-to-market adjustments on foreign currency derivatives, non-recurring charges in 2019 related to our Separation from UTC and lower gains on sales of certain fixed assets.

See Note 5, "Related Parties" to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion on costs related to the Separation.

Interest Expense (Income), Net

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Interest expense (income), net$122 $(14)$(14)

Interest expense (income), net primarily relates to interest expense on our external debt, offset by interest income earned on cash balances, short-term investments and related party activity between Otis and UTC in the prior years.

The increase in Interest expense (income), net in 2020 compared to 2019 was primarily driven by interest expense of $124 million on our external debt for the year ended December 31, 2020 and debt issuance cost amortization of $5 million. These expenses were offset by interest income on short-term investments. The average interest rate on our external long-term debt for 2020 is 2.3%.

Interest expense (income), net remained flat in 2019 in comparison to 2018.

For additional discussion of borrowings, see Note 10, "Borrowings and Lines of Credit" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Income Taxes
 202020192018
Effective tax rate30.1 %31.9 %36.1 %

The 2020 effective tax rate is higher than the statutory U.S. rate primarily due to higher international tax rates as compared to the lower U.S. federal statutory rate and foreign earnings subject to U.S. tax under the provisions of the TCJA.

The 2020 effective tax rate compared to the 2019 effective tax rate reflects a tax benefit of $10 million related to our change in assertion of no longer intending to reinvest certain undistributed earnings made during the year as compared to the liability previously recorded by UTC, a decrease as a result of tax regulations related to the TCJA that were enacted during the
7


year, as well as a recognition of a Separation-related foreign tax loss. These were partially offset by incremental withholding taxes in 2020.

The 2019 effective tax rate is higher than the statutory U.S. rate primarily due to higher international tax rates as compared to the lower U.S. federal statutory rate, and the full phase-in of the TCJA.

The 2019 effective tax rate compared to the 2018 effective tax rate reflects a decrease in the cost of U.S. and foreign tax on international activities primarily attributable to the absence of the net tax charge of $143 million as a result of UTC’s change of assertion of no longer intending to reinvest certain undistributed earnings of its international subsidiaries, offset by the full phase-in of the TCJA.

The 2018 effective tax rate is higher than the statutory U.S. rate as it reflects a net tax charge of $143 million as a result of UTC’s change of assertion of no longer intending to reinvest certain undistributed earnings of its international subsidiaries.

For additional discussion of income taxes and the effective income tax rate, see Note 15, "Income Taxes" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Noncontrolling Interest in Subsidiaries' Earnings

(dollars in millions)202020192018
Noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries' earnings$150 $151 $161 

Noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries' earnings remained consistent in 2020 in comparison to 2019.

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest decreased in 2019 when compared with 2018 primarily due to a decrease in the net income of certain subsidiaries with noncontrolling interest.

Ownership interest in the underlying entities has remained generally consistent year-over-year.

Net Income Attributable to Common Shareholders

(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)202020192018
Net income attributable to common shareholders$906 $1,116 $1,049 
Diluted earnings per share from operations$2.08 $2.58 $2.42 

Net income attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 includes restructuring charges, net of taxes, of $58 million ($77 million pre-tax), as well as charges relating to significant non-operational and/or non-recurring items, net of taxes, of approximately $132 million ($203 million pre-tax) which include non-recurring Separation-related costs, fixed asset impairments, non-recurring Separation-related tax benefits and the impact of non-recurring tax items. These significant non-operational and/or non-recurring items, along with incremental standalone public company costs were the primary contributors to lower Net income attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2020 when compared to the same period in 2019. The effects of the restructuring and the non-operational and non-recurring items above resulted in an impact of $0.44 on diluted earnings per share for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Net income attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2019 includes restructuring charges, net of tax benefit, of $39 million ($54 million pre-tax) as well as charges relating to significant non-operational and/or non-recurring items, net of taxes, of approximately $51 million ($69 million pre-tax), which primarily consist of employee-related costs, costs to establish certain standalone functions, information technology systems, professional services fees and other transaction-related costs for our transition to being a standalone public company, in addition to non-recurring losses on disposals of businesses.

Net income attributable to common shareholders for the year ended December 31, 2018 includes restructuring charges, net of tax benefit, of $53 million ($69 million pre-tax) as well as a net charge for certain non-operational and/or non-recurring items, primarily driven by a tax charge of $143 million that will become due when previously reinvested earnings of certain international subsidiaries are remitted.
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Segment Review
Net SalesOperating ProfitOperating Profit Margin
(dollars in millions)202020192018202020192018202020192018
New Equipment$5,371 $5,648 $5,596 $318 $393 $390 5.9 %7.0 %7.0 %
Service7,385 7,470 7,319 1,611 1,603 1,516 21.8 %21.5 %20.7 %
Total segment12,756 13,118 12,915 1,929 1,996 1,906 15.1 %15.2 %14.8 %
General corporate expenses and other — — (290)(182)(71) — — 
Total$12,756 $13,118 $12,915 $1,639 $1,814 $1,835 12.8 %13.8 %14.2 %


New Equipment

The New Equipment segment designs, manufactures, sells and installs a wide range of passenger and freight elevators, as well as escalators and moving walkways in residential and commercial buildings and infrastructure projects. Our New Equipment customers include real-estate and building developers and general contractors who develop and/or design buildings for residential, commercial, retail or mixed-use activity. We sell directly to customers as well as through agents and distributors.

 Total Increase (Decrease)
Year-Over-Year for:
(dollars in millions)2020201920182020 compared with 20192019 compared with 2018
Net sales$5,371 $5,648 $5,596 $(277)(4.9)%$52 0.9 %
Cost of sales4,439 4,640 4,586 (201)(4.3)%54 1.2 %
932 1,008 1,010 (76)(7.5)%(2)(0.2)%
Operating expenses and other614 615 620 (1)(0.2)%(5)(0.8)%
Operating profit$318 $393 $390 $(75)(19.1)%$0.8 %

 20202019
 Net SalesCost of SalesOperating ProfitNet SalesCost of SalesOperating Profit
Organic/Operational(4.0)%(3.7)%(12.7)%4.2 %4.8 %2.6 %
Foreign currency translation(0.8)%(0.7)%(2.3)%(3.4)%(3.6)%(4.3)%
Acquisitions/Divestitures, net % % %— %— %— %
Restructuring cost %0.1 %(2.8)%— %— %1.5 %
Other(0.1)% %(1.3)%0.1 %— %1.0 %
Total % change(4.9)%(4.3)%(19.1)%0.9 %1.2 %0.8 %

2020 Compared with 2019

The organic sales decrease of (4.0)% was primarily driven by organic sales declines in all regions primarily due to impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

New Equipment operational profit decreased (12.7)%, as strong material productivity 15.8% and cost containment actions, were more than offset by the impact of lower volume (8.9)% and unfavorable rate drivers (25.1)% due to under-absorption, field inefficiencies, price and mix and higher bad debt expense. New Equipment operating profit was also impacted by foreign currency headwinds, higher restructuring costs and incremental public company standalone costs.

2019 Compared with 2018

The organic sales increase of 4.2% primarily reflects growth in Asia.
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New Equipment operational profit increased 2.6% driven by higher volume 6.8% and lower research and development expenses 3.1%, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses (7.1)%.

Service

The Service segment performs maintenance and repair services for both our products and those of other manufacturers and provides modernization services to upgrade elevators and escalators. Maintenance services include inspections to ensure code compliance, preventive maintenance offerings and other customized maintenance offerings tailored to meet customer needs, as well as repair services that address equipment and component wear and tear, and breakdowns. Modernization services enhance equipment operation and improve building functionality. Modernization offerings can range from relatively simple upgrades of interior finishes and aesthetics, to complex upgrades of larger components and sub-systems. Our typical Service customers include building owners, facility managers, housing associations and government agencies that operate buildings where elevators and escalators are installed.

 Total Increase (Decrease)
Year-Over-Year for:
(dollars in millions)2020201920182020 compared with 20192019 compared with 2018
Net sales$7,385 $7,470 $7,319 $(85)(1.1)%$151 2.1 %
Cost of sales4,538 4,652 4,603 (114)(2.5)%49 1.1 %
2,847 2,818 2,716 29 1.0 %102 3.8 %
Operating expenses and other1,236 1,215 1,200 21 1.7 %15 1.3 %
Operating profit$1,611 $1,603 $1,516 $8 0.5 %$87 5.7 %

20202019
Net SalesCost of SalesOperating ProfitNet SalesCost of SalesOperating Profit
Organic/Operational(0.7)%(1.8)%0.9 %5.1 %4.4 %8.3 %
Foreign currency translation(0.1)%(0.1)%0.2 %(3.0)%(3.0)%(3.4)%
Acquisitions/Divestitures, net(0.3)%(0.6)%(0.1)%— %(0.2)%(0.1)%
Restructuring cost %(0.1)%(0.7)%— %— %0.6 %
Other %0.1 %0.2 %— %(0.1)%0.3 %
Total % change(1.1)%(2.5)%0.5 %2.1 %1.1 %5.7 %

2020 Compared with 2019

Service sales declined (1.1)% with an organic sales decline of (0.7)% and the remaining decrease due to foreign currency headwinds and the net impact from acquisitions and divestitures. The organic sales decrease (0.7)% primarily consists of organic sales decrease in maintenance and repair of (0.9)%, with organic sales for modernization remaining flat.

Maintenance and repair net sales decreased (1.2)% year over year and was comprised of a (0.9)% organic sales decrease, foreign currency headwinds of (0.1)% and decreases related to net acquisitions and divestitures of (0.2)%.

Modernization net sales decreased (0.9)% year over year and was comprised of a 0.1% organic sales increase, foreign currency tailwinds of 0.1%, more than offset by decreases related to net acquisitions and divestitures (1.1)%.

Service operational profit increased 0.9% with the benefit of favorable productivity 4.2%, pricing and mix 2.3%, and cost containment actions, more than offsetting the combined impact of price concessions and lower volume (3.4)% and higher bad debt expense. Service operating profit was also favorably impacted by foreign currency, offset by higher restructuring costs and incremental public company standalone costs.

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2019 Compared with 2018

The organic sales increase of 5.1% primarily consists of organic increases in maintenance and repair 4.9% and modernization 6.2%.

Maintenance and repair net sales increased 1.7% year over year and was comprised of a 4.9% organic sales increase, offset by foreign currency headwinds of (3.2)%.

Modernization net sales increased 3.6% year over year and was comprised of a 6.2% organic sales increase, offset by foreign currency headwinds of (2.2)% and decreases related to acquisitions and divestitures, net of (0.4)%.

Service operational profit increased 8.3%, driven by higher volume 7.8% and favorable price and mix 6.0%, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses (4.1)%.

General Corporate Expenses and Other

(dollars in millions)202020192018
General corporate expenses and other(290)(182)(71)

General corporate expenses and other increased approximately $108 million in 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, primarily driven by current year fixed asset impairments of $71 million and associated license costs of approximately $14 million, non-recurring Separation-related costs of $119 million in the current year and incremental standalone public company costs. These were partially offset by favorable mark-to-market adjustments on foreign currency derivatives of $46 million when compared to the prior period, the absence of losses on the sale of a business of $19 million that occurred during 2019 and a non-recurring gain of approximately $17 million related to an expected insurance recovery for property damage as a result of the fire in our manufacturing facility in Germany recognized in the current year.

General corporate expenses and other increased approximately $111 million in 2019 compared to the same period in 2018, primarily driven by non-recurring Separation costs and the changes in Other (expense) income, net previously discussed above.


LIQUIDITY AND FINANCIAL CONDITION

(dollars in millions)December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents$1,782 $1,446 
Total debt5,963 39 
Net debt (total debt less cash and cash equivalents)